We would like to introduce you one part of English. It is the relative clause. There are many parts of English grammar. Although the relative clauses in English language are very similar to relative clauses in Slovak language, they are translated in a different way. Just as the sentence may be indefinitely complex, so may the noun phrase. This must be so, since sentences themselves can be reshaped so as to come within noun-phrase structure. For example this simple and complex sentences:
A/ The woman is Bathsheba Everden.
The woman is young and atractive.
The woman was looking into the mirror. can be re-expressed as one simple sentence with a very complex noun phrase as subject:
B/ The young and atractive woman who is looking into the mirror is Bathsheba Everden. (These sentences are from the book that I am working with and they are the main
characteristics of the main character Bathsheba Everden.)
Starting from the simple sentence with a very complex noun phrase as subject, we could reconstruct any of the simple and complex sentences. In fact we could not understand the noun phrase subject of the simple sentence with a very complex noun phrase as subject, unless we recongnized its component parts as they are set out in the first three sentences in A/. The sentence in B/ has introduced many changes. We have suppressed all or part of the verbs, we have put the complement young and atractive before the noun woman. We have also replaced the woman of by who. In describing complex noun phrases, we distinguish three components:
a) The head, around which the other components cluster and which dictates concord and other kinds of congruence with the rest of the sentence outside the noun phrase:
Eg: The young and atractive woman who is looking into the mirror is Bathsheba Everden.
b) The premodification, which comprises all the items placed before the head – notably, determiners, adjectives, and nouns. Eg: The young and atractive woman…
c) The postmodification, comprising all the items placed after the head – notably, prepositional phrases, nonfinite clauses and relative clauses:
Eg: The woman who is looking into the mirror…
Clauses beginning with question words (who, which, where) are often used to modify nouns and some pronouns – to identify people and things, or to give more information about them.
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Relative Clauses - Stylistics
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Zdroje: Porovnávacia gramatika anglického a slovenského jazyka I - Miroslav Bázlik, Martin Votruba, A Concise Grammar of Contemporary English - Sidney Greenbaum, Randolph Quirk, Far From the Madding Crowd - Thomas Hardy, Ďaleko od hlučiaceho davu - Thomas Hardy, translator Zora Juráková, Porovnávacia gramatika anglického a slovenského jazyka I- Miroslav Bázlik, Martin Votruba, A Concise Grammar of Contemporary English - Sidney Greenbaum, Randolph Quirk, Far From the Madding Crowd - Thomas Hardy, Ďaleko od hlučiaceho davu - Thomas Hardy, translator Zora Juráková