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Piatok, 24. mája 2024
Industrial revolution
Dátum pridania: 18.12.2003 Oznámkuj: 12345
Autor referátu: cepren
Jazyk: Angličtina Počet slov: 1 078
Referát vhodný pre: Stredná odborná škola Počet A4: 3.8
Priemerná známka: 2.96 Rýchle čítanie: 6m 20s
Pomalé čítanie: 9m 30s
The Industrial Revolution began in England in the early 18th century for
the following reasons:

1. England had experienced all of the forerunners of industrialization in the previous century: an agricultural revolution, cottage industry, and an expanded commercial revolution. These developments had built surplus capital and an infrastructure
(shipping, banking, insurance, joint stock companies). 2. England already had a handcraft textile industry using wool, but with the availability of cotton from overseas markets as an alternative raw material. 3. The scientific revolution in England prepared the way for new inventions to be applied to industry. 4. A spreading shortage of wood (used for energy, for shipbuilding and
construction) stimulated a search for alternatives. 5. England was rich in supplies of coal for energy and iron for construction. 6. England had a long, irregular coastline with many rivers and natural
harbors which provided easy transportation by water to many areas. 7. England's population grew rapidly in the 18th century, providing a labor
force for industry. A revolution in agriculture in the 1700s created conditions that favored the Industrial Revolution.Farmers began growing new crops and using new technology such as the seed drill and the iron plow. Increased food production improved people's diet and health, which in turn contributed to rapid population growth. Better farming methods meant that fewer people were needed to farm. As a result, unemployed farmers formed a large new
The early spinning machine labor force. The factory system. The Industrial Revolution began in the textile industry, where a series of inventions created new demands for laborers. Between 1733 and 1793, inventors produced new machines, such as the flying shuttle, the spinning jenny, and a water-powered loom, that speeded up the spinning and weaving of wool and cotton. Many new machines were

powered by running water, so inventors built spinning mills near rivers and hired many workers to run the machines. The new machines led to the growth of the factory system, which brought workers and machines together in one place to manufacture goods. By the late 1700s, steam began to replace water as a source of power. Inventors such as Thomas Newcomen and James Watt improved the steam-powered engine. Steam engines gave a boost to two other industries that were essential to the Industrial Revolution&emdash;coal and iron.
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