– Všetko čo študent potrebuje
Nedeľa, 26. júna 2022
Dátum pridania: 28.01.2004 Oznámkuj: 12345
Autor referátu: indianruha
Jazyk: Angličtina Počet slov: 1 656
Referát vhodný pre: Stredná odborná škola Počet A4: 6.5
Priemerná známka: 2.94 Rýchle čítanie: 10m 50s
Pomalé čítanie: 16m 15s

thus, however, therefore, moreover, then, in fact, in general, don’t omit that, which, don’t use ellipses, progress from the theme to the rhyme, most sentences don’t start with the subject, avoid ambiguity, precisely formulated statements


Forms and functions: to inform, to persuade, reflects the state of society, form people’s attitudes; functions of PS is newspapers, magazines, TV, editorials, columns, articles, mixed forms – reviews, essays, report, feature story

Characteristic features: clarity and accuracy of utterance, professional language not necessary, only generally known terms, use of periphrastic expressions, journalistic clichés; emphasis on situational/cultural context; positive/negative evaluative adjectives – persuasive function; impersonal expressions – 1st person singular for both the author as well as the addressee (“we say”); emotionally marked language, familiar expressions, euphemisms, metaphors; terminology – military, administration, politics, diplomacy, economy

Related Styles – Sub styles: publicists – analytical; informative, journalistic, newspaper style; literary – belletristic


Forms and Functions: short news, communiqué/statement, announcement, advertisement, set lay-out, limited space; functions of NS is to inform, instruct the reader, provide facts and information without commentaries, to deliver news to a wide readership

Characteristic features: neutral and clear language, special concepts, neologisms, semantic condensate, in titles, headlines slang, familiar, colloquial expressions, cliché (bitter end, calm before the storm); short sentences max 20 words, simple sentences esp. at the beginning, well structured, logical sequence; frequent use of adjectives, providing details, quotations, references; special form of titles, headlines


Characteristic features: the most condensed piece of information, maximum of information on minimum of space – use of special headline vocabulary (ban, bid, crack, cut, dash, hit, move – monosyllabic words, short, universal character); abbreviated words, nominal constructions, omission of articles and auxiliaries, use of hyphens, abbreviations, numbers; nominal/condensed constructions – Fishermen sailing today, Rail Safety Call; finite verb forms are frequently omitted (Our delegation back from USA); replacements of periphrastic verbal forms, such as those of the continuous tenses or of the present, etc., by the historical present tense (NATO ministers meet in Brussels) or by some nominal form derived from the verbal basis (Labor examining the situation), frequent use of gerunds and infinitives (The Government to meet next Monday); alliteration, puns – Trade Union Unity, Conspirator-in-Chief; long words replaced by the short ones in newspaper captions; much shorter paragraphs (6-8 lines)


Characteristic features: contracted verbal forms of the type I’ll, didn’t, couldn’t, etc.
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