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Health and diseases

We should take care of our health because it´s the most important thing in our life, but we don´t realize it until we´re ill. Money won´t cure a person with an incurable illness. Chance may sometimes lead us into situations from which there isn´t escape. We should eat healthy food, do sports and avoid stress situations. Everybody in our country has the right to choose a doctor (state or private one). Medical care is provided for our citizens from birth to death and is free of charge. Soon after birth each child is vaccinated against illnesses such as tuberculosis, diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, polio and later smallpox. First aid – try the pulse and breathing. Then turn a person on their side and stick the tongue (they can suffocate with it). You can also give an artificial respiration. Don´t move with them much, unless it´s absolutely necessary. Stop bleeding, keep them warm and call the doctor.

Parts of human body

Head: face, hair, eyes, eyelids, cornea, pupil, iris, ears, cheeks, chin, mouth, lips, jaw, teeth, molar, tongue, neck/throat, forehead, eyebrows, eyelashes, temples, nose, nostril.
Trunk: back, buttocks, waist, hips, tummy, navel, chest, breast.
Limbs: upper limb, arm, shoulder, armpit, elbow, forearm, wrist, hand, palm, fingers (thumb, index finger, middle finger, ring finger, little finger), nail, lower limb, leg, thigh, knee, calf, shin, foot, sole, instep, ankle, heel, toes (big toe).
Genitals: penis, testicles, vagina, ovaries, Fallopian tube, womb.
Sperm, eggs.
Skeleton: backbone/spine, bones, joint, rib, pelvis, skull.
Nervous system: nerve, brain, spinal cord.
Blood system: blood vessels, arteries, veins, blood cells.
Internal organs: heart, lungs, stomach, large intestine, small intestine, appendix, liver, gall bladder, kidneys, bladder, spleen.


The human body is permanently being attacked by many different kinds of bacteria, micro-organisms, and viruses.

Most diseases can be prevented or at least controlled.
Children diseases: scarlet fever, polio, measles, German measles, mumps, chickenpox, diphtheria, smallpox, rubella, whooping cough.
Other diseases: cold, sore throat, tonsillitis, angina, flu, bronchitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis, typhoid, jaundice, diarrhoea, otitis, encephalitis, plague, cholera.
Civilization diseases: depression, nervous breakdown, headache, insomnia, high blood pressure, allergy, asthma.
Incurable diseases: cancer, AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome).

Symptoms: bleeding, coughing, tiredness, headache, stomachache, sore throat, have no appetite.

Prevention: live healthy lifestyle, eat healthy food – vegetables, fruit, have a lot of vitamins, do some sport, breath fresh air, keep hygienic laws, avoid stress. Prevention is better than cure. Our food must contain proteins, carbohydrates, fat, vitamins, roughage and minerals.

Sometimes we don´t feel well and we´re ill. Many people, especially in autumn, winter, and early spring, suffer from colds. They have a cough, a fever or a headache. If your illness is light (e.g. cold), we can cure it by drinking tea with lemon and honey or having a plenty of cool drinks (2-3 liters a day), and eating lots of fruit containing vitamin C. You should also stay indoors and keep from other people as much as possible. If we have a high fever, we should go to the doctor.

Our medicine chest should contain clinical thermometer, pills, capsules, ointments, cotton wool, bandages, adhesive plasters and disinfectants.

At the doctor´s

If we´re ill, we go to the doctor. We must find when their surgery is open and we must wait in the waiting room till it´s our turn. Waiting room is usually crowded. We need our health insurance company´s card with us. Then we enter the surgery where the nurse and doctor examine and help us. We are asked some questions concerning our health. After the examination of our chest and throat the doctor may write us a prescription. Then we go to the pharmacy to get our medication. It may be pills, tablets, powder, drops, syrup, capsules, or ointments. If we´re seriously ill or we need to be operated on we´re sent to the hospital for treatment.

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