There are two different types of grapes, black and white.But black grapes are really dark red and white grapes are light green.Grapes are delicious to eat fresh, and keep their sweetness when dried, too.But most of the grapes grown in the world are used for making wine.Grape plants are called vines and they are planted in rows in vineyards.Vines need a lot of care, and it takes much hard work and skill to produce a bottle of wine.
As vines grow, they are often cut back so they have a few strong branches rather than lots of weaker ones.This work is called pruning and must be done by hand.First the grapes are crushed and pressed to mix the yeast with the sugar in the grapes.This is called fermentation.Then the juice is filtered and poured into vats.These are left in a cool place for the flavour of the wine to develop.
The type of soil in a vineyeard is very important and affect the flavour of the wine.Yet some of the best wines are produced from poor soils.This is because the vine can find regular supplies of food and water by pushing its roots deep into the earth.Most wine grapes today are picked by maschine, except in small or sloping vineyeards.Special grapes for making rare wines are carefully picked by hand.Grapes for drying must be very sweet because it is their natural sugar that preserves them.They can be dried on racks, in the sun or in ovens.Only seedless grapes are used for drying.Sultanas are dried white grapes.Raisins and currants are dried black grapes and are usually smaller.red and white wine can also be made into vinegar.It is produced when special vinegar yeasts ferment the the wine, and turn it sour.Vinegars can be made from other liquids, like cider or malt,and are used as a flavouring.They can also be mixed with foods to pickle and preserve them.
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