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Streda, 25. mája 2022
London: historical monuments
Dátum pridania: 12.11.2004 Oznámkuj: 12345
Autor referátu: gola2
 
Jazyk: Angličtina Počet slov: 4 366
Referát vhodný pre: Gymnázium Počet A4: 13.5
Priemerná známka: 2.94 Rýchle čítanie: 22m 30s
Pomalé čítanie: 33m 45s
 
10 DOWNING STREET: Downing Street is very visited street in London. At 10 Downing Street is a residence of Britain´s Prime Minister and the number 11 is the official residence of the Chancellor of Exchequer. When the Prime Minister is in London, cabinet meets there for a few hours once or twice a week. They meet in long white room with has shape like aeroplane wing. It was designed so that the Prime Minister can see everyone who sits at the table.
10 Downing Street is a street in Westminster, London. It was built by Sir George Downing. Many tourists come to a narrow line see Number Ten, the official reidence of Britain´s Prime Minister. There is the Cabinet Room where Cabinet meetings are held.
Nearby is a museum of Sherlock Holmes.

THE CITY OF LONDON: London originated as the Roman settlement of Londinium. London with its population is greater than that of all Slovakia (4000 km2). There are two cities, London and Westminster and 28 boroughs. The Buckhingham Palace and the Houses of Parliament are not in the City of London at all. The City is one of the world´s leading financial centres. There are many banks: Bank of England (Old Lady of Threadneedle street), Lloyds of London, Stock Exchange, Royal Exchange.
A typical Englishman: Black jacket, pinstriped throusers, bowlor hat, umbrella and rolled-up copy of the Times, he is a thing of the past. In 1665 75.000 Londoners died from the plague.
On September 2nd 1666 a bakery in Pudding Lane near London Bridge cuaght fire. After the fire, the city was rebuilt. Many buildings were designed by Sir Christopher Wren. He built The Monument to the Great Fire – 202 feet = 65 m and St. Paul´s Cathedral completed in 1708 by his son, which was the place of Prince Charles wedding to Princess Diana.
The City of London is area around St. Paul´s Cathedral. It is very small and tiny. It has only 2 square miles. It is seat of the Chairman, the head of the Greater London and the Lord Mayor of London, a chief officer of the City.

SIR CHRISTOPHER WREN: He was born in 1632. He built 53 churches within the St. Paul´s Cathedral. Much of the St. Clement Domes was destroyed by bombs in 1941, during WWI, but the outside walls and the steeple were left standing. When it was restored St. Clement´s Domes was rededicated, becoming the central church of the Royal Air Force in 1958. His earliest architectural works are to be found in Oxford and Cambridge.

TRAFALGAR SQUARE: Trafalgar Square is named after the cape in Spain near which a great sea battle was fought between the British Royal Navy and the combined French and Spain navies in 1805. The British won and the result was that Bonaparte lost command of the seas for ever. A statue of the victor of Trafalgar, the one-armed oneeyed Admiral Horatio Nelson, dominates the square on top of 56-metres high column guarded at each corner by splendid bronze lion designed by sir Edwin Landseer. Important streets that join it include Whitehall, synonymous with government, the Mall, which leads directly to Buckingham Palace, Regent Street, a major shopping street, Charring Cross Road, the heart of the book trade, and the Strand, named after its position on what used to be the bank of the river Thames. On the corner of this street is Charing Cross railway station. The present-day cross dates from 1863, the original was destroyed during the Civil War. The square is lived with important buildings, for example the church of St. Martin-in-the-Fields. The biggest and probably the best known is the National Gallery. As a large open speal in the heart of the city, the square is a natural meeting place to enjoy the atmosphere, to see the sights, to demonstrate, to celebrate – sport victories, for instance, or X-mas (every year there is a huge X-mas tree there, a present from the people of Norway) or New Year, to feed the pigeons, or just to meet friends.
On a Trafalgar Square are the Royal Horse Guards whit dark uniforms and helmets.

TOWER BRIDGE: Tower Bridge is in the City and is the most interesting bridge acoss the Thames because it opens in the middle to let large ships pass up and down the river. Visitors to London can go inside, where there is a museum.

THE HOUSE OF PARLIAMENT: There are two Houses of Parliament: the Lords and the Commons. They are in the same building – the Palace of Westminster. There is also Westminster Hall and the famous Big Ben next to Westminster Bridge.

BIG BEN: Big Ben is a bell which strikes the hours in the clock tower of the Houses Of Parliament in London. The bell weighs 13.5 tons and was named after Sir Benjamin Hall in 1858. Sir Benjamin Hall was one of the ministers in the middle of the last century. He was nicknamed „Big Ben“ because he was very tall.

WESTMINSTER ABBEY: westminster Abbey is a church in London. Its history began in the 11th century. The Abbey is the place where kings and queens are crowned and buried. Memorials to famous British poets and writers are found here in Poet´s Corner.
Westminster, now the political centre of London, was, until the 11th century, a sacred place called Thorney Island. It was covered in brambles and surrounded by swamps. It was here that King Edward the Confessor, inspired by the churches he had visited in Normandy, decided to build a great abbey church. Sadly the church he built was consecrated on December 28, 1065, when he was too weak to attend. Eight days later Edward the Confessor died and was buried in the abbey. His tomb became a popular place of pilgrimage and it is still found at the heart of the present Westminster Abbey.

As Edward the Confessor died, the first monarch to be crowned here was Wiliam the Conqueror. His coronation took place on Christmas Day 1066 and since then all Coronations have been held here. The Coronation Chair, which has been used since 1308, can be seen in Confessor´s Chapel.
Im the 13th century Henry III began rebuilding the old Abbey – a process which lasted some 300 years to create most of the building we know today – although the West Towers were not finished until 1745. Henry III added a Lady Chapel in 1220.
 
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