Native people of Canada
The first inhabitants of a largely glacier-covered North America were hunters. They hunted big animals like the giant sloth and the mommoth, bath of which were mucg larger than an land mammal of the 20th century. The weapons hunters used were wooden lames with sharp stone heads, made by painstakingly chipping pieces from flint rock. Historians studying the prehistoric era speculate that hunters made their attacks at very close range, probably when the animal was mired in a boy.
The big Game Hunting Culture flourished in Canada´s plains and eastern woodlands until about 8000 B.C. in Canada´s far West there developed a similar ancient hunting fishing culture known as Old Cordilleran. When the glacier began to melt, the gardually warming climate changed the face of the land and dramaticall affected the wildlife. The mammath soon became extind. In the forests surrounding the lakes left by retreating glaciers, the people hunted deer, bear, elk and smaller game.
The culture that originated in this moist, forested region has come to bo known as Boreal Archaic. Lasting until about 6000 B.C., it was morhut by the various wood – working tools, including ares, gouges and adzes (an use with an inward – turning blade). With these, the Boreal Archaic peoples were able to make clugout canoes. By 1000 B.C., the Early Werrtland Culture had developed in lastern North America. During this period, the population became more stable and inurporated into the cultures of prehistories tribes of Canada.
All the northern tribes believed in guardian spirits that would protect them in hard times. TheSekani believed, for example, that the guardian spirit a young man obtained in his vision quest would help him only in times of dire need. If he were lucky, later in life he might obtain further guardian spirit of whom he could count at all times. Such fortunate individuals usually became shamans in the comunity.
Shaman often exercised great power in northern bands. All shamans were able to summon helpfull animal spirits to guide them in their efforts to heal the sick. Among the Slave, shamans attempted to extract the disease-consing object by means of massage or suction. Shamans also predicted the weather and knew where game could be found. Hunters who had poor luck often requested the services of a shaman to help bring about a change of fortune. The Kutchin used animal scapulas (shoulder blates) to determine wheather or not a hunt would be placed an a moose scapula and set on fire.
The shaman, very often and elderly woman, covered herself and the burning charcoal with a blanket. If she smelled burning meat, the hunt would be succesful. The pattern made be the fire on the bone indicated the note to be taken, by the hunters. Like the Wouldland First Nations all northern tribes followed presceribed ritual procedures in hanting and butchering game and disposing of the bones. Bears in particular, where treated with great respect. Among the more westerl Athapaskan animals. Tribes practised some group ceremonials particularly after the killing of certain animals such as bear and the otter. Winter solstice festivals featured feasting singing, dancing, drumming, racing competitions and games of strenght, like wrestling. The Hare regularly held to ceremonials: lunar feast on the occasion of each new moon and a memorial feast for the dead, usually held on the first anniversary of the person´s death.
Both the Slave and the Chipewyan believed that after death the soul made a long journey across a late in a stone canoe. If the deceased had led a grod lift, the canoe travelled, safely to an enchanted island, rich in game and firewood. But if the deccased had led an evil life, the canoe would sink and the soul would be doomed to spend eternity in cold water.
Wildlife native to Canada
Due to the great open spaces and low population density (les than 4 people per square mile throughout most of the country), many species of wildlife native to north America can still be found throughout Canada.
Killer whales can be seen along the Pacific Coast as they migrate north to the Artic Ocean.
Beluga whales and narwhales can also be found in the Artic. The Artic is home to a host of land species including: the Artic Fox, Wolves, the Artic hare, Ptarmigan, Ookpik, Musk Ox, Polar Bears, Seal and Caribon.
In the Rocky Mountains it is possible to spot brown, black and grizly bears, cougar, elk, deer, moose, big horn sheep, mountain goats, and a host of smaller creatures such as coyotes, fox, rebbits and chipmunks.
Coyotes, deer, beaver, hawks and other grassland creatures inhabit the plains.
The rugged Canadian shield is home to many moose and deer. People come from around the world to fish for trout and pike (northern jackfish) in the northern lakes of Manitoba and Ontario. Salmon fishing in the Pacific and far north is also popular.
The capital of Canada, Ottawa has large parks, imprettive public buildings, and wide streets. Institutions of higher education here include the University of Ottawa and Carleton University. Among the city´s many museums are the National Gallery of Canada, the Canadian war museum, the Canadian Museum of Nature, the National Meseum of Science and Technology, the Canadian Ski Museum, and the Byrown Museum. Other palces of interest include the GothicstyleParliament Buildings, rebuilt after a fire in 1916; Ridean Hall – the official residence of the Governer – General of Canada – which dates from 1838; the National Arts Centre; the National Library and Public Archives; the Garden of the Provinces; and the Royal Canadian Mint. The Ottawa Ballet, the Great Canadian Theater Company, and other smaller theatre groups perform throughout the year.
In May the city is the site of a tulip festival. Ottawa is the administrative centre of the country and a commercial and manufacturing hub (centrum). In the 1970s the Ottawa area became a major centre for producing electronic and commuýnications equipment. Other products include paper, furniture, printed materials, processed food, beverages, chemicals, machinery, and clothing. The Redean Canal connects Ottawa to Lake Ontario, at Kingston.
A major inland seaport with extensive modern freight – handling facilities, is also a commercial, financial, and cultural centre. Principal products include pulp and paper, processed food, meteland wooditems, chemicals, electrical and electronic equipment, and printed materials. French is spoken by 95% of the population.
The older part of the city, with its narrow streets and picturesque (buildings), has a European atmosphere. The city walls, originally built between 1823 and 1832, surrround much of the older quarters and are dominated by the Citadel, a large fortress. Other place of interest include an Ursulme convent, the church of Notre-Dame-des Victoires, the church of Notre- Dame- de-Québec, and Anglical Cathedral, Battlefields Park, and Dufferin Terrace, a promenade in the Hante – Ville (Upper Town).
Overloading the river and adjacent to Chateau Frontenac, a hotel. Québec is the site of Laval University, the University of Québec, the National Archives of Québec, The Québec Summary Museum, the Québec Museum, the Québec Conservatory of Music, the Museé de la Civilisation, the Palais Montcalm, and the Théatre capitole.
A Huron village known as Stadacona occupied the site of present – day Québec, when the French explorer facques Cartier visited the area in 1535.
It si a booming financial and cultural centre and a major Great lakes port.
The area´s first inhabitants near the north shore of lake ontario were the Seneca and later the mississana nations. As a strategic French trading post in the nearly 18th century, it was a stopoft for tur traders, adventurs, and Christian missionaries heading inland. In 1793 the city was chsen as capital of the new colony of Upper canada and renamed York. The opening of the Erie canal in 1825 and the advent of the railway in the 1850s transformed the port city – once again called toronto – into an important distribution centre. Toronto became the capital of the new province of ontario in 1876. British influence wanted after World war II, when waves of unmigrants from all over urope brought a rich variety of customs and traditions to the city.
Contemporary Toronto is known for its dynamism and ethnic diversity. The skyline of this prosperous, cosmopolitan city is dominated by skycrapers; these include the CN Tower, the world´s tallest free – standing structure, at 553 metres (1815 feet). Althought the central area has a sleek new look, yellow and red trams add quaint charm to the aest-weststreets. Toronto´s skydome, a huge stadium with a retractable roof that opened in 1989 seats 60 000 people. The Toronto Stock Exchange is one of the most important in North America. A world-famous symphony, many fine theatres, and excellent museums and art galleries contribute to the city´s flourishing cultural life.
The world second largest french-speking city after Paris, and Canada´s hading port, radiates a cosmopolitan spirit that combines old word charm and ultramodern development close to 1000 sroguois greeted French explorer Jacques Cartier in 1535 when the ariived on an island near violent rapids in the St. Lawrence river. The next day, led by Iroquois guides, Cartier climbed Hochelaga, the snowtain that rose behind the village, and named it Mont-Royal.
Nearly a century later, 40 french settlers set on converting the Native Americans to Christianity built Montreál, the island´s first fortified city. Their convection was tested by decades of hardship and skumishes with Native Americans, who sided with either British of French colonists as the French and Indian War brewed. Montreál fell to the British in 1760. Its strategic location made it the centre of the active fur trade and gave easy accesss to Canada´s interior.
Thus began the lengstanding rivarly between the English minority and French majorityfor cultural, political and economic dominance of the city Today, Montreál is into English- and French- speaking quarters, and strict laws gowern the use of language in business, government and education. Despite these ciltural differences, and as waves of immigrants continue to add new flavour to the city. Montreál has grown to became a prosperious commercial centre. The city enjoys showing off its modern metro underground system and its underground city. Place-Killemavie-, which houses more than 40 blocks of offices, shops, restaurants, and hotels. The sant Lawrence, Montreál´s well preserved 19-th century cobblesecnes streets and other historic treasures provide a proud contrast.