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Štvrtok, 25. apríla 2024
Sports and games
Dátum pridania: 20.12.2004 Oznámkuj: 12345
Autor referátu: 3b3
Jazyk: Angličtina Počet slov: 1 940
Referát vhodný pre: Gymnázium Počet A4: 6.2
Priemerná známka: 2.96 Rýchle čítanie: 10m 20s
Pomalé čítanie: 15m 30s
The Games were renewed in 1896 by Pierre de Coubertin to promote understanding and friendship among nations. The first modern games were held in Athens, Greece. Young men and women come from all over the world to compete in various sports and represent their country. They live in an Olympic Village at the site of the games.

Since 1924 there are two parts to the games- the winter and the summer part-, which alternate once every two years and they take a place in different country.
The Olympic games are organized and governed by the International Olympic Committee (IOC). It sets the general program, chooses the city where the games are to be held, and determines the standards of amateurism. The opening ceremony of each Olympic games is held in a major stadium. The president of the host nation usually officiates. Led by athletes from Greece, all athletes march around the stadium in the parade of Nations. Then, facing the Olympic Flag, the athletes take the Olympic Oath: We swear that we will take part in these Olympic Games in the true spirit of sportsmanship, and that we will respect and abide by the rules that govern them, for the glory of sport and the honour of our country.

The Olympic Flame is light with a torch that is brought by a relay of athletes from the ruins of ancient Olympia in Greece. When the Games are completed, the flag is lowered and the flame extinguished. As reward for victory a sportsman may obtain bronze, silver or gold medal.

5) There are also some negative effects related to sport activity. Although is the fairplay controlled by referees or umpires (tennis, cricket...), some players try to be winners by breaking the rules in a game, which they are usually punished for.
Sport games and events around can also develop negative qualities those people taking part in. For example in Britain hooliganism at matches is often a serious problem because unruly spectators cause fights and throw things on the pitch.

Sport fame may be a good thing but some persons cannot get on with their popularity very well. They earn much money and then sometimes don’t know what to do with them. For example if they lost their interest in sport they can fall for drugs, alcohol. Their lives are trashed out in gutter press. It is sometimes very similar as with actors or other famous people. But of course this is not case of everyone. There are also rich people who got their money from sport career and than dedicate them for humanitarian targets or sport increase in their country. For example some Slovak ice-hockey players who play NHL gave some money for hockey youth in Slovakia.
The biggest negative influence on sportsmen has doping. Doping is the use of a substances or method that is potentially dangerous for the health of sportsmen but is able to improve their performance.

Many kinds of drugs are used in sports all over the world. Some are used to build muscles or give extra energy. Others kill the pain of injuries or calm nerves, but many are illegal.

Anabolic steroids – are used to build up muscles, they resemble male hormones.
Bodybuilders use anabolic steroids to look good in competitions. These drugs can cause health problems: liver cancer in men and infertility in women. You can become very aggressive.

Stimulants – make you feel full of energy and confidence, and you have the bigger stamina. It’s amphetamines and cocaine; cyclists, basketballers and footballers use them. Problems: they don’t create energy – they take it from your body. Users feel exhausted and washed-out. There is a danger of having a heart attack (collapse).
Beta-blockers – are drugs, which are normally prescribed by doctors for people with high blood pressure or heart problems. They help calm you down and relieve stress.
Users: snooker players and archers – who need steady hands and cool nerves. Problems: with heart and blood pressure.

Except these stuffs exist also mild drugs which are accepted.
Doping affair can also harm sportsman’s good reputation and it can make his further career impossible for a few months or years. Some scandals are not based on real facts. People or press can only increase someone’s negative popularity.
Using drugs is prohibited for many reasons. Firstly, sportsmen are idols to small children and if they take drugs, it certainly is a bad role model for young sportsmen and sportswomen. Secondly, it is not healthy; in fact it is very dangerous to human body when abused. And last but not least- it is unfair to the other people who try to be the best without any "support" of drugs. The point of sport should still be to DO sport, not to take drugs, to prove you are the best, not to prove which kind of drug is the best.
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