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Štvrtok, 30. mája 2024
Stephen Hawking in slovak translation
Dátum pridania: 22.12.2004 Oznámkuj: 12345
Autor referátu: gari
Jazyk: Angličtina Počet slov: 23 116
Referát vhodný pre: Vysoká škola Počet A4: 79.6
Priemerná známka: 2.97 Rýchle čítanie: 132m 40s
Pomalé čítanie: 199m 0s
For recognizing the process of translation it is typical that it moves between analysis and synthesis. In dipole of both there are used three operations: (1) syntactic, (2) semantic and (3) pragmatic. In this order there are realized operations in analytical phase of the process of translation, when during reading the original text translator gets to understanding and comprehension of the text. After analytical part, translator`s decision for synthesis follows and the synthesis itself outline the results of the translating process, or to put it differently creation of the translated text. In this phase – in syntactical phase of the translating process – the order of translating operations is usually changed, while we continue from pragmatic through semantic to syntactic form.
Analysis and synthesis in translating process deals with working with text material of the original and consecutively translation. In the beginning there is reading of the text in the language of original, and reading is connected with analysis in following stages:

1st stage – Syntactic analysis - from the point of reader-translator here is shown his ability to destinguish lexical unit and syntax.
2nd stage – Semantic analysis – with help of syntax shows ability to identify meaning and logic relations in the sentence.
3rd stage – Pragmatic analysis – here is shown (a) translator`s ability to identify the information from the perspective core of utterance – if sentence is expressionally marked or unmarked, (b) translator`s ability to distinguish stylistic use of expressional means considering relation to the receiver of the information.
Translator makes according to this three-level analysis semantic image about sentence – generally about text – original, which is base for three-level synthesis – thus forming the final form of the translation.
Up to the end of the third analytical stage (pragmatic synthesis) translator is in the position of the reader of the original text. When he starts to realize his semantic imagination about read and analyzed text and produce to the target language, he switches from the role of the reader to the other role – he takes position of the translator – analyser. And here the phase of synthesis in translating process has also three-level form:

1 Pragmatic synthesis – translator makes decisions, what will be saved or changed from original. He deals with these key tasks:
(a) how to solve purpose of the text,
(b) how not to interrupt (or interrupt) relation of the base and core of the utterance, while informative-notice relation in the text as a whole are taken in mind, and
(c) how to manage with the style of the original in style of the target text.
2 Semantic synthesis – according of the image of pragmatic synthesis translator works on creation of meaning character of the reproductive text.
3 Syntactic synthesis – translator comes out of pragmatic and semantic synthesis in order to use them during creation of the synthetic relations on the level of the text.

Translator performs the role of main factor in the progress of translating. His bilingual competition and translating experience takes the highest position in hierarchy of his competences.

2.2 Expressional Shifts and Changes in Translation

The term shift was first used by Catford to identify “changes that come up during the translating by structural no compatibleness between the source and target language”. Shifts described by Catford have mostly grammatical and linguistic character. Term shift is specified by Popovič who does not identify it only as “a result of linguistic differences, but also as the textual, literary and cultural differences.” Popovič understands shifts as changes that happened during translation of the source text and can be identified in the system of expressional means. Translator should save the core or invariant of the original. Formed losses must be replaced by functional way. The shift should always be intended change according to the original used by translator in his deciding process after his deep interpretation of the original. An absolute translation doesn`t exist, therefore are the ways to substitute “lost” elements of the original. In this condition we are talking about functional expressional shift, which puts for its aim to express elements in conditions of the difference of two systems. It is an optimal variant of the original.
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