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Sobota, 25. júna 2022
Science and Technology
Dátum pridania: 27.10.2005 Oznámkuj: 12345
Autor referátu: Tegi
 
Jazyk: Angličtina Počet slov: 2 000
Referát vhodný pre: Gymnázium Počet A4: 6.4
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SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN USAGE OF HUMAN
According to my opinion the most popular technical achievement in man’s history is computer. The history of computers started actually in 1960s when the first electronic computer was developed. From that time computers have undergone dramatic changes in size, speed, software and prize. From the big computers that took a whole basket field and many people were needed to operate it, gradually appeared smaller and smaller ones and noticeably more powerful. We know that computers have already revolutionized the way how we live and work. They help us work faster and more effectively. For example, in business, computers are used to store, process and retrieve data at a speed that is thousand times faster than formerly. On PC we can write text, paint pictures, play games or of course do other different activities. Today everyone works with computers.

Use of computer can be better if you have an access to the information highway - the Internet. It was invented by Tim Berners-Lee in 1989 and it enables people to get information that is normally unavailable – from world libraries, museums and other institutions including business and finance offices. But you can also send and receive e-mail letters that reach their destinations in a few seconds or minutes irrespective of the distance or you can download music and film files. And it has also enabled home-working to women with children or people living in distant places, who would have to commute a long distances to work every day.
Another very useful branch of science is nuclear physics (branch of physics concerned with the nucleus of the atom). The main use of nuclear physics is in nuclear power. Nuclear power station produce a huge amount of electricity. The problem is that its very dangerous when occurs some accident and also problems are with nuclear waste which is radioactive. Another usage is in X-ray (form of electromagnetic radiation) which is widely used for diagnostic medical imaging and in crystallography. Many people suffering from cancer were cured by a treatment with usage of irradiation.

In 20th century a huge interest in universe came. First man in the universe was Yuri Gagarin from Russia (1961) and the first men on the moon were Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin (1969) from USA. From that time many space stations have been built, thousands of satellites are orbiting our planet for communication purposes, weather forecast etc. Communications satellites can pick up signals from a point on the Earth and relay them to the other side of the Earth by amplifying them and then beaming down to a ground station. Some satellites carry cameras which take pictures of the Earth’s surface to help meteorologists forecast. Other satellites carry cameras and telescopes which are pointed out into space so that astronauts can get more information about distant stars and planets.

MISUSE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
Everything has its own pros and cons. This phrase belongs also to science and technology. It’s very satisfying how science has influenced our lives from positive side of view, but it has influenced our lives also from a negative side - Science can be misused.
The best example how the science can be abused is weapon - at first, meant as a defend tool used only in a case of danger. But we all know that it isn’t like that. Weapon that influenced a world most was a nuclear weapon. It is a weapon that derives its energy from nuclear reactions and has enormous destructive power — a single nuclear weapon is capable of destroying a city. Nuclear weapons have been used twice for war, by the United States against the Japanese cities of Hiroshima (Little Boy) and Nagasaki (Fat Man) during World War II with a dreadful results. Little Boy had a force of 12,000 tons of TNT, it levelled all buildings and 100,000 people died. Very dangerous are also chemical and biological weapons.

In house you have a washing machine, which will wash your dish for you; then you have an owen that automatically order the course of baking according to the food you insert there; you have a car which you use for a transport; you can buy things on-line so goods will be delivered right to your house. As a science develops, people become lazier; simply they are living easier and easier life but only from a physical side of man. From a mental side people get more and more stressed, they are still in rush. People don’t do any sport because they simply don’t have any time. Besides a healthy nutrition, people eat hamburgers, drink alcohol and smoke cigarettes. This all doesn’t influence our health positively. And that’s why the civilization diseases came to existence. Right example can be the heart attack or diseases which are related to metabolism, bloodstream. Many people die for these diseases.

The steep development of industry in the last 50 years is a great danger for life on the Earth. There are two pressing problems with the atmosphere of our planet which are caused by emitting polluting materials into the air. The most pressing problem is caused by the impairment of the ozone layer in the stratosphere of the Earth. Ozone is decomposed by Freon above all. The second great problem is the green-house effect which is caused by a lot of CO2 in the air. The increase of temperature can cause thawing of polar icebergs maybe in a period of 50 years.

MAN AND SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN THE FUTURE
Developments in science and technology will have a dramatic effect on the future of work. Postmen, clerks and secretaries will vanish in a paper-free society. All the routine tasks they perform will be carried by computers. In education teachers will be largely replaced by teaching machines which will provide far more knowledge than any human being. Moreover, most learning will take place in the home via video conferencing. However, children will still go to school, until another place is created where they can make friends and develop social skills through play. Even people in traditional professions, where the knowledge was the most important, lost their job. They can be easily substituted by computer with all the most up-to-date legal information. You might meet with the computer judge.
 
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