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Morphology II.: Verbs
Dátum pridania: 31.01.2005 Oznámkuj: 12345
Autor referátu: braniislav
Jazyk: Angličtina Počet slov: 845
Referát vhodný pre: Vysoká škola Počet A4: 2.5
Priemerná známka: 2.97 Rýchle čítanie: 4m 10s
Pomalé čítanie: 6m 15s
Stative verbs are verbs that describe a state and consequently the stative verb is not usually used in the progressive aspect, which is used for incomplete actions in progress.

EG: They own a cottage in Somerset. (The possession is a state and not an action. We cannot write this sentence in the progressive aspect)
A dynamic verb is one that can be used in the progressive (continuous) aspect, indicating an unfinished action.
EG: She's lying on the bed. (An incomplete action in progress)
DO', 'BE' and 'HAVE' are the English auxiliary verbs used in a negative structure, a question or to show tense.

1/ 'DO', 'DON'T', 'DOES' and 'DOESN'T' are used for questions and negatives in the Present Simple Tense, and 'DID' and 'DIDN'T' are used in the Past Simple Tense.
2/ 'BE' is used with the Present Participle in Continuous (Progressive) Verbs. It is also used with the Past Participle in the Passive
3/ 'HAVE' is used with the Past Participle to form the Perfect Aspect
Modal verbs are used to express ideas such as possibility, intention, obligation and necessity.
eg: I would have told you, if you had wanted me to.
eg: Yes, I can do that.

The finite forms of a verb are the forms where the verb shows tense, person or singular plural. Non-finite verb forms have no person, tense or number.
I go, she goes, he went - These verb forms are finite.
To go, going - These verb forms are non-finite.

The non-finite forms of a verb have no tense, person or singular plural. The infinitive and present and past participles are the non-finite parts of a verb; To do; doing; done

An irregular verb is one that does not take the -ed ending for the Past Simple and Past Participle forms. Some verbs do not change; put put put, while others change completely; buy bought bought, etc.
Irregular verbs fall into 5 categories:
1. Base Form
2. Past Simple
3. Past Participle
4. 3rd Person Singular
5. Present Participle / Gerund

Mood shows the attitude of the speaker or the writer to the action or state described by the verb.
1) The Indicative is the verb used in ordinary statements and questions:
She went home.
Has she called yet?
2) The Imperative is used to give orders and instructions:
Go home.
Come and see me.
3) The Subjunctive is used to express doubts, wishes, etc. It is not used much in English any more and exists in a few phrases:
If I were you, I'd speak to her about it straightaway.
Be that as it may

Aspect in a verb shows whether the action or state is complete or not:
She's doing a crossword puzzle. (incomplete- progressive aspect)
They've washed up. (complete- perfect aspect)
The progressive aspect is often called 'continuous'

Voice shows the relationship between the verb and the noun phrases connected to it. There are two voices in English; the passive and the active.
Tense is used to show the relation between the action or state described by the verb and the time, which is reflected in the form of the verb. There are two basic tenses in English; the present tense and the past tense. The present is like the base form, although the third person singular adds -s. Regular verbs add -ed or -d to show the past tense, while irregular verbs change in many different ways, or not at all in some cases.
An inchoative verb is a verb that describes a change of state.
EG: The apples ripened. (The apples became ripe.)
EG: He has aged a lot. (He has become old.)

A phrasal verb consists of a verb and a preposition or adverb that modifies or changes the meaning; 'give up' is a phrasal verb that means 'stop doing' something, which is very different from 'give'. The word or words that modify a verb in this manner can also go under the name particle

The Passive occurs in most aspects and tenses and changes the emphasis:
EG: My roof was damaged by the storm. - (The storm caused the damage, but the cause is less important to me than the damage to my roof, because I will have to repair it.)
It is also called the Passive Voice
The perfect aspect is formed with the auxiliary verb 'to have' + the past participle. It is used for finished actions that are relevant to the time referred to or ones that continue up to the time referred to:
She's worked here for donkey's years. (this continues up to now)
I've lost my keys. (a past action that is relevant now as I can't open the door)
The progressive, or continuous, aspect is formed with the auxiliary verb 'to be' + - ing, the present participle. It shows that an action or state, past, present, or future, was, is or will be unfinished at the time referred to:
I'm reading Nelson Mandela's autobiography. (action unfinished now)
She was having a shower when the phone rang. (action unfinished at the time the phone rang)
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