London, with its population about 8 000 000 inhabitants is the 9th largest city in the world. It is situated on the Thames and as the capital of Great Britain has a rich ancient history. In the 16th and 17th century its growth was so rapid that Elizabeth I and James 1 issued proclamation against any further extension of the town. Another important mileston in the history of London was the Great Fire which broke out in 1666 and destroyed London`s medieval sights. Over three qarters of the City were burnt down. The rebuildind of the City brought some improvments: main street were widened, houses were built of stone. London has the oldest underground in the world. There are many places of interest. We can see them by walking or by warious means of transport. London famous double-decker go almost everywhere. For fast transport we can go by undewrground.
London consists of the City, the East End and the West End (Westminister). The City is the oldest part of the town where many banks, sights, offices are situated. There you can find beautiful houses for example, shops, resturents, theatres, cinemas for the rich. It is a part of luxury, full of lights and advertisments. The East End is not as beautiful as the West End because poor people live there. The streets are narrow and houses are shabby.
Trafalgar sqare is the bigest sqare in London called the true heart of London. It was named in Honour of the victorious naval battle at Trafalgar in1805 where Admiraal Nelson won over Napoleon. There is column – Nelson`s Column to comemorate this victory. Ther are many pigeons and tourists feed them while resting on the ben ches. The sqare is a very popular place for various meeting and demonstrations. At Christmas time a big Christmas tree stands there and on New Year`s Eve people gather here at midnight, they sing and dance. There is also the National Galery in this sqare. It houses paintings by nearby all the great Europenean artists of the past and a large collection of British paintings and sculptures.
The Tower is the oldest surviving place in London. From the 11th century is served many purpose – fortrees, a royal palace, a prison, royal zoo, a treasury. The oldest part is the White tower built as a fortrees and family residence by Wiliam the Conqeror in 1078. It is a museum of arms, armour and instrumens of torture now. There are also the Crown jewels displayed there.
Tower bridge is one of many bridges across the Thames. It ia not as old as the Tower. Its parts can be raised to allow ships to pass throught.
The Houses of Parliament are built in gothic style and they seem to be old too, but they aren`t because in 19th century a fire broke out and destryed everything with exception of Westminister Hall. But as for the place itself, it has been the seat government since the 11th century. The houses are situated on the bonk on the Thames naer the Westminster Bridge. The Houses are richly decorated. There are two towers – the Clock Tower nicknamed Big Ben who was of a stout figure. The second tower is Victoria Tower from which the royal Standart is flown it the Qeen is present at the opening sesion of the Parliament. The Parliament consist of two Houses: The House of Lords and The House of commons, members of the later are elected and the Qeen has no access to this House.
Westminister Abbey: is situated at the Parliament Sqare. It is the place where all the English monarchs have been crowned for over 600 years and many of them also buried. There are also graves of famous artist, writers and scientist.
St Paul`s Cathedral is the second largest Christian church in the world (after St Peter`s in Rome). It was built after the Great Fire in 1666. It is the place where Prince Charles and Lady Diana were maried in 1981. The cathedral is known for its Whispering Gallery. Standing on this Galery you can clearly hear what is whispered on the oposite side 107 feet far from you.
Piccadilly Circus: is the centre of the West End entertainment world. In the middle ther is the statue of Eros. It is always full of people, it is very busy place full of double-deckers. And it is full of lights and neon advertisments at night.
Buckingham Palace: is the building known to all as the Qeen`s official London home. It was originaly built for the Duke of Buckhingham in 1703. In 1837 Qeen Victoria made Buckingham Palace her pernament home – firs monarch to do so – and introduced the custom by which the Royal Standart is flown to show that the Qeen is in residence. In the centre of the building ther is stone balcony where the Royal family appear at festive occasion. Every second day ther is aranged the spectacular ceremony of changing gurds.
Downing Street: is unboubtedly the most famous street in London, for no. 10 is the official home of the Prime Minister and has been since Sir Robert Walpole took up residence in 1735
Madame Tussaud`s: is the world famous waxwork museum, it is an anternationl display of Kings, Qeens, politicians, stars of films, televisions and pop, sportsmen.
Museums: the British Museum, Victoria and Albert Museum, Natural History Museum , Geological Museum, Sherlock Holmes Museum… The British Museum is the largest museum in the world. It houses many antiquities from ancient Greece,Rome and the Orient, Egyptian mummies, Middle Ages manuscripts.
Regent Street and Oxford Street are the most famous shopping centres in London.
Parks: There are many parks in London:St James Park, Green Park. The largest of them is Hyde Park. It is also known for its Speaker`s Corner where anybody can have a speech.
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