A verb is a single word or a phrase word (phrasal verbs), which expresses the existence of a state, the happening of an action or it can signify a change of a state of affairs.
Verbs are divided into 3 categories:
opened 1. lexical (full, main) verbs – they carry full lexical meaning, they usually are the main words in sentence (run, love, work)
a) transitive – they need an object, otherwise they have no meaning (“He gave. He collected.”)
b) intransitive – the do not need an object (“It's raining. He stopped.”)
closed 2. primary verbs – they function as main or auxiliary verbs in the sentence, when there is just one-word form, it always functions as a main verb (if carries
meaning), when primary verb functions as the auxiliary verb, it just creates tenses, negatives, passives etc.
3. modal, auxiliary verbs (grammatical, structure or function verbs) – they function grammatically and do not carry lexical meaning
“We don't do it.” DON'T is an auxiliary verb and the main verb is DO
“I have had coffee.” HAVE is an auxiliary verb and the main verb is HAD
“What do you do?” the first DO (interrogative) is auxiliary and the second is main
“It has just been done.” HAS BEEN is auxiliary and DONE is main
“I am fifteen.” AM (be), the primary verb, functions as main
All modal verbs function as auxiliary, they never function as main verbs! When verb phrase consists of one verb form, the verb form functions as main verb. When a verb phrase consists of more than one verb forms, the last one is always main and a previous one(s) functions as auxiliary!
“I must go.”
“I can go.”
“I may go.”
Modals are always first, but comparing with primary verbs, which function as auxiliaries, modals behave differently: they carry some meaning and add some meaning to a lexical verb. At the same time they function grammatically, because through them we can make interrogatives, negatives, etc...
Determiners signify the beginning of a noun phrase, prepositions of prepositional phrase, and conjunctions of a new clause. Interjections stand separately, because they are not tide with a sentence or clause.
Sentences are Compound (priraďovacie) or Complex (podraďovacie).
Form and function
When verb stands outside of the context (isolated), it can not always be recognized that it is a verb. Verbs not always differ in forms and we can not always say, when we see a word at the first sight, that it is a verb.
1. work, run, play, break – verb and noun have the same spelling and pronunciation
2. use – (ju:s – noun, ju:z – verb)
permit – (permit – noun, permit – verb (stress)), export, import, progress
advice (noun) – advise (verb), device (noun) – devise (verb)
half (noun) – halve (verb), calf (noun) – calve (verb)
Other division of verb is to:
Dynamic verbs – which express action
Stative verbs – express states and can not be used in a progressive aspect
State usually lasts longer than action.
Some verbs (get, go, grow, turn, become) signify changes.
Full (lexical) verbs
These can be divided from different points of view:
1) according to how they make past tense to:
a) regular (-ed form)
b) irregular (irregular verbs)
a) stative (express states – groups of liking, disliking, hating, knowing, owning and verbs that express senses)
b) dynamic (express action)
“It smells bad.” “I’m smelling roses. “
“Soup tastes good.“ “I’m tasting soup.”
“You look good.” “You are looking lovely.”
! We use adjectives after the verbs of sense.
For verb TO BE, HEAR, SEE we use can to express progressive aspect.
TO BE is considered to be a stative verbs, not normally used in progressive aspect, but there is one situation where is used in progressive aspect:
“You are selfish.” (a permanent feature of a human character)
“You are being selfish.” (just at this moment)
TO HAVE (to posess, own) – verbs of owning are stative verbs (“I have a house.”, “I have a headache.”), but in some cases you can say “I am having shower.”, “I am having fun.”, so except primary meaning, it can be used dynamically.
Some verbs are pure stative (have to used only in perfective aspect (know)).
Some can be both, but the meaning can be different:
(think (to express opinion) – thinking (the action of mind)),
consider (považovať (“I consider you a genius.”)) – considering (“I am considering selling a house.”), measure (state of body (“I measure 1,55 m.”) – measuring (“I am measuring the room”), weigh – weighing).
a) transitive – verbs which have to be completed by an object
b) intransitive – verbs which do not need an object to be completed intensive – be (linking verb)
c) verbs that can function as both transitive and intransitive (read, write, leave)
“I collect stamps.” – tran.
“I give you money.” – tran.
“I slept only two hours yesterday.” – intran. (“two hours” is adverbial of time)
“I went to the town.” – intran. (“to the town” is adverbial of place)
“I left.” – intran.
“I left my girlfriend.” – tran.
! We can find the object by asking whom or what. Otherwise it is not an object!
Categories of the verb
Each word class has certain categories, they define word class deeply.
These categories are:
1. person - they reflect the relationship between speaker and other people or things
2. number – it expresses the contrast between singular and plural, between one and more than one
a) indicative – speaker considers something a real fact
b) imperative – speaker urges something
c) subjunctive – “They demanded that he wear a tie.” (in 1st clause we use the verb of demanding (insist, require, demand…) or a demanding phrase (it is essential, vital, necessary…) and the meaning is that somebody requires someone to do something, in the second clause we always have the base form of the verb and it does not change (should can be used here, but usually it is omitted))
Finite vs. non-finite verb form
Finite verb form (určitý slovesný tvar) is capable of showing tense, mood, person and number (it does not have to show all these).
Non-finite verb form (neurčitý slovesný tvar – nič neukazuje (chodiť)) is capable of showing aspect and voice, but does not show tense, mood, person or number.
Finiteness is always connected with concord (the agreement between the subject and the verb in the sentence).
“Oni idú. Ja idem. Ja chcem ísť.” – subject requires a certain type of verb
A finite verb form immediately follows the subject. (môže tam byť iný slovný druh, nie sloveso (e.g. adverbials))
Morphological forms of the verb
Full regular verbs can have four morphological forms:
1. base form (work – write - set) - base form can function in five ways. It is uninflectional form that can be found in the dictionary.
a) I (You, We, They) listen to you. – functions as indicative mood present tense (finite)
b) Listen to me! – imperative (finite)
c) I require that he listen to me. – subjunctive mood form (finite)
d) I want you to listen to me. – infinitive form (non-finite)
e) You must listen to me. – bare infinitive (must is finite, listen is non-finite)
2. -s form (works – writes - sets) – shows person, number, tense (finite)
3. –ed past tense form (worked – wrote - set) – “I worked here.”
-ed past participle form (-written – set) – “I have worked here.” have is finite, worked is non-finite
- how to distinguish the past tense and past participle form: past tense form immediately follows the subject!
4. –ing present participle form (working – writing – setting)
! Irregular verb forms vary in number of these morphological forms (BE has 8 m.f.).
ING form of the verb
The –ing form functions as:
1. participle – the form of a verb used in compound tenses where it functions as a verb that will always be in a verbal phrase (“I am working.”, “I was working.”) or as adjective (“surprising news“).
2. gerund – this is not a verb, it is a verbal noun (slovesné podstatné meno) that is derived from the verb, but functions as a noun, what means, that these gerunds denote actions, whereas nouns denote things, objects, etc.
“WALKING” – can be a participle (-úci, júci, aci, jaci, úc, júc, ac, jac) or gerund (anie, nie, enie).
Mostly gerunds function as nouns (as subject, subject complement or object), but they can be adjective as well.
When participle functions as adjective, it expresses that noun is doing the action expressed by the participle. When a gerund functions as adjective, it expresses the purpose.
“a dancing couple” – part.
“dancing shoes” – ger.
“sleeping bag” – ger.
“a sleeping pill” – ger.
“a sleeping man” – part.
“walking is healthy” – ger. (walking is a noun)
Formation of the ING form
1. work +ing -working
2. play, study +ing - playing
3. hope – hoping
4. die, lie – dying, lying
5. dye +ing - dyeing
6. sit (1 syllable) - +ting – sitting
7. two syllable words:
a. offer, vomit (stress on the beginning) +ing – offering, vomiting
b. refer, begin (stress on the end) +ring, +ning – referring, beginning
8. sue – suing, sueing
9. –l, -m, worship (in eng. 2 ps, in ame. 1 p)
Gerunds and infinitives
After verb we can put a noun (“I need money.”, “I like walking.”) or another verb (“I need to buy some clothes.”, “I saw him crossing/cross the street.” (the meaning decides)).
1. verbs that are followed by both infinitive or gerund and the meaning stays the same:
a) like, love, prefer
b) hate, can’t stand, can’t bare
c) begin, start, continue
“It begins to rain.”, “It begins raining.”
We have to use infinitive when the verb is in progressive aspect: “It is starting to rain.”.
2. verbs that can be followed either by gerund or infinitive, but there is a difference in meaning:
“I always remember to lock the door.” duty
“I remember locking the door.” expresses past
“She forgets to lock the door.” duty
“I can’t forget visiting Moscow.” past
“I regret to tell you that I can’t come.” you have to do it now
"I regret telling him that.” past (you already did it)
“I tried cooking and baking.” skúšať (tried several appr.)
“I tried to park the car there.” snažiť sa (effort)
“I did not mean to hurt you.” to intend (mať úmysel)
“To catch the six o’clock train would mean getting up at four.” znamenať
“He stopped to smoke.” zastaviť sa (inf of purpose)
“He stopped smoking.” Prestať
Gerund has incommon with the verb that it describes an action!
The main difference between participle and gerund:
Participle functions as a noun -
Gerund functions as a verb + BOTH function as adjective
When a gerund premodifies the noun, it is used for a purpose.
3. verbs that are followed by gerund
4. verbs that are followed by infinitive
5. verbs that are followed by pronoun + infinitive
Ďaľšie referáty z kategórie
English morphology and syntax
|Jazyk:||Počet slov:||4 048|
|Referát vhodný pre:||Vysoká škola||Počet A4:||12.2|
|Priemerná známka:||3.00||Rýchle čítanie:||20m 20s|
|Pomalé čítanie:||30m 30s|