A. THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE A/AN
- we use a/an to refer to a singular countable noun which is indefinite = either we don’t know which one or it doesn’t matter which one; it is mentioned for the 1. time or represents no particular person or thing
- the form “a” is used before the pronounced consonant and “an” before the pronounced vowel
- we use a/an: to describe professions; with certain expressions of quantity (a lot of, a couple); with certain numbers (a hundred, a quarter, a kilo and a half); with expressions of price and speed (4 time a day, 60 km an hour); with exclamations with singular nouns(what a lonely man!); when you can substituted it with some or one
- we don’t use: before plural nouns; before uncountable nouns; before names of meals (neplatí keď je s príd. menom)
B. THE DEFINITE ARTICLE THE
- the form is same in singular and plural for all genders
- we pronounced [đ] before the pronounced consonant, [đi:] before the pronounce vowel
- we use the: before a singular or plural noun when both the speaker and the listener know, which specific objects is being referred to - if we mentioned it for the 2. time or if it is defined by the addition of the phrase; when the object or group of objects is unique or considered to be unique (the earth, the Queen – of Great Britain, the stars, the Atlantic); with certain public places – names of the pubs, hotels, theatres, cinemas; when it refers to groups of people (the French, the rich – boháči, the old, the Brown’s); before a noun, which by reason of locality can represent only one particular thing (the kitchen, the car, the postman, the garden } in my house); before superlatives and ordinal numbers (the most expensive, the first); before certain proper names of seas, rivers, groups of islands, chain of mountains (The British Islands, Black Sea); plural names of countries (The Netherlands) or the names of countries that contain 2 or more words – okrem Great Britain (The Slovak Republic); deserts, regions (The east); with certain other names (the City, the Hague, the Sudan); the bay of; the north pole
- we don’t use: South Africa, West, …
C. ZERO ARTICLE
- we don’t use articles: with plural nouns when talking about things in general and with uncountable nouns; when we talk about streets, roads, squares (Oxford street, Hyde park); with lakes, countries – pozor výnimky!, continents; before names of places, people; before abstract nouns; b. possessive adjectives (her, mine); b. names of meals, academic subjects, games, sports, parts of the body (my hand, your arm); b. some nouns: church , hospital, prison, school, town – keď poznám bez, keď poznám s členom; home, sea, bed, night, bus
- Money is the roof of all evil.
- Put the money on the table.