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The United States of America – the richest and one of the biggest countries in the world – has several names. People say “the United States”, “the States”, “America”, or just “the USA” or “the US”.

The American Indians were the first people to live in that vast land. They had a fascinating, ancient culture, and a rich tradition of language and customs.

But then, the immigrants came. Most came from Europe, but there are also many from the Middle East and the Far East, millions from Africa. Now there are more than 25 million British Americans, about 23 million African Americans, 25 million German Americans and more Irish Americans than the whole population of Ireland.

In 1620 the Puritans discriminated in England by King James I who was a Protestant came from England in their ship the Mayflower and reached north America. Their first colonies were called new England and they were called Pilgrim Fathers. During they first winter, over one half of the settlers died. The rest survived and learned from local „Indians“ how to farm and catch fish. The following November, after their first successful harvest, they celebrated with a special „Thanksgiving“ dinner.

The War began in 1775 and a year later colonical representatives declared independence from the King George III. The Declaration of independence belongs to the most important documents. It was signed on July 4, 1776 by all 13 colonies in Philadelphia. This day was called Independence Day. The result was six year of war which ended in victory for the Americans led by George Washington who later became the first president of the USA. The War ended in 1781 but it wasn´t until 1783 that England officially recognized the independence of the USA.

The USA enganged in many wars – The second World War, war in Cuba, Vietnam War, Korean War, Afghan War and Iraq War. But 11. 9. 2001 the terorists attacked the US. World Trade Center with Tweens Towers ended in shambles and Penthagon was endangered. This moment for ever changed whole of the USA.

There are 50 states in the USA. Over 200 milion people live in them. There is no “American climate” or “American countriside”. Every part of the country is different, from Alaska in the north, covered with snow and ice, to tropical Florida in the south.
In America, the President is the head of the state. He makes the most important desicions and chooses the members of his cabinet who will help him to govern the country. The President also represents the United States on official occasions.
Congress has two parts, the Senate and the House of Representatives. The President cannot act without the Senate’s agreement.
Every state in the United States hes its governor, its own police and its own laws.

In the USA, different states celebrate different holidays. Ther are only five national holidays that are celebrated in every state. These are:
New Year’s Day
Independence Day / July 4th
Labor Day / first Monday of September
Thanksgiving Day / fourth Thursday of November
Christmas Day.

Baseball is the most popular summer sport in America. Americans play tennis, hockey, basketball. American Football is a very different game.


California is a beatiful country on the western coast of the US. The most enjoyable places are Disneyland, Universal Studios in Hollywood and the Sea World in San Diego.

Las Vegas lies in Nevada. It is visited by more than 12 million visitors every year. They want to get rich quickly in its casinos. They also go to see many famous singers, comediants, dancers and musicians in its hotels and nightclubs.
Chicago is the 3rd largest city in the USA. Chicago is called the metropolis of Middle West. It is nicknamed the “windy city” because of the breezes that blow in from lake.

After the war, people from all over the world came to America and most of them settled in New York.
NY, originally caled New Amsterdam, was a little Dutch town built on a small part of Manhattan (from Indian – Man-a-hat-ta which means Heavenly land). In 1626 the Dutch colonizers bought the island from Indians for 24 dollars. In 1644 the British captured the city and renamed it New York in honor of the Duke of York. They protected the town against Indians by a wooden wall. Now in the place of the wall there is Wall Street which is known as the world´s most important financial centre. After the ar of Independence, NY was the capital of the USA for four years and its first President – George Washington – was inaugurated there in 1789.
NY is the largest city in the USA and one of the largest cities of the world. It has population which has more than 14 milion people. It is an important seaport an the largest business, industrial and cultural centre of the USA. It is also the centre of art world, the media world, the theatre world and the fashion world.
The nicknames of NY are : MELTING POT or BIG APPLE.

There are 5 parts in NY which are called boroughs:
1. Manhattan – the real centre of NY. NY is famous for its Manhattan skyline- a large number of skyscrapers on a small area. The tallest of them are Trade Centre Buildings having 110 storeys. On of the most famous skyscrapers is called Empire State Building. It has 102 storeys and a TV tower at the top. To 11. september 2001 the highest building in NY was the World Trade Center with Tweens Towers. The next famous skyscrapers are Rockefeller Center, Chrysler Building and Pan American Building.
2. Staten Island – there are a lot of lakes and trees, not many people live there
3. Brooklyn – has a famous beach – Coney Beach and a famous shipyard
4. Queens – is the largest borough and a lot of visitors arrive there if they fly because there is the most important airport (one of 3 airports in NY) – the John F.Kennedy International Airport
5. The Bronx – is the only borough on the mainland, all others are on islands; there are a lot of parks and the Bronx ZOO – one of the largest in America

The Statue of Liberty is America’s symbol of freedom or symbol of America’s welcome. “Lady Liberty” was a present from the people of France to people of the United States. She carries a torch in her right hand. In her left hand she holds a law book with the date: “July 4, 1776”. There is a staircase leading into her torch and you must climb 168 steps to reach the top.

Washington doesn’t belong to any state in the USA. D.C. means District of Columbia. Washington is the seat of the Capitol and the White House – the seat of the President. Interesting places in Washington are: the Jefferson Memorial, the White House, Arlington National Cemetery, the Museum of Natural History.

The United States has many outstanding national parks, but its most famous is the Yellowstone NP which is located in north – west Wyoming. Each year millions of tourists come to the park to see its majestic waterfalls, hot termal pools, and erupting geysers.
Grand Canyon NP, Arizona, is one of the Us most spectacular natural sights. Unlike Yellowstone NP which is known for its lovely mountains and breathtaking waterfalls, Grand Canyon NP contains dry and desert environment.

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