Change management is the process of developing a planned approach to change in an organization. Typically the objective is to maximize the collective efforts of all people involved in the change and minimize the risk of failure of implementing the change. The discipline of change management deals primarily with the human aspect of change, and is therefore related to pure and industrial psychology.
Change management can be either reactive, in which case management is responding to changes in the macroenvironment (that is, the source of the change is external), or proactive, in which case management is initiating the change in order to achieve a desired goal (that is, the source of the change is internal). Change management can be conducted on a continuous basis, on a regular schedule (such as an annual review), or when deemed necessary on a program-by-program basis.
Change management can be approached from a number of angles and applied to numerous organizational processes. Its most common uses are in information technology management, strategic management, and process management. To be effective, change management should be multi-disciplinary, touching all aspects of the organization. However, at its core, implementing new procedures, technologies, and overcoming resistance to change are fundamentally human resource
The psychology of change
Attitudes towards change result from a complex interplay of emotions and cognitive processes. Because of this complexity everyone reacts to change differently. On the positive side, change is seen as akin to opportunity, rejuvenation, progress, innovation, and growth. But just as legitimately, change can also be seen as akin to instability, upheaval, unpredictability, threat, and disorientation. Whether employees perceive change with fear, anxiety and demoralization, r with excitement and confidence, or somewhere in between, depends partially on the individual's psychological makeup, artially on management's actions, and partially on the specific nature of the change.
O individual's attitude toward a change tends to evolve as they become more familiar with it. The stages a person goes hrough can consist of: apprehension, denial, anger, resentment, depression, cognitive dissonance, compliance, acceptance, nd internalization. It is management's job to create an environment in which people can go through these stages as quickly s possible, and even skip some of them. Effective change management programs are frequently sequential, with early measures irected at overcoming the initial apprehension, denial, anger, and resentment, but gradually evolving into a program that supports compliance, acceptance, and internalization.
Management's first responsibility is to detect trends in the macroenvironment so as to be able to identify changes and initiate programs. It is also important to estimate what impact a change will likely have on employee behaviour patterns, work processes, technological requirements, and motivation. Management must assess what employee reactions will be and craft a change program that will provide support as workers go through the process of accepting change. The program must then be implemented, disseminated throughout the organization, monitored for effectiveness, and adjusted where necessary.
In general terms, a change program should:
Describe the change process to all people involved and explain the reasons why the changes are occurring. The information should be complete, unbiased, reliable, transparent, and timely. Be designed to effectively implement the change while being aligned with organizational objectives, macroenvironmental trends, and employee perceptions and feelings. Provide support to employees as they deal with the change, and wherever possible involve the employees directly in the
change process itself.
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|Autor referátu:||Martin Černický|
|Referát vhodný pre:||Vysoká škola||Počet A4:||2.1|
|Priemerná známka:||2.93||Rýchle čítanie:||3m 30s|
|Pomalé čítanie:||5m 15s|