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Daniel Defoe: Robinson Crusoe
Dátum pridania: 03.05.2006 Oznámkuj: 12345
Autor referátu: edimi
Jazyk: Angličtina Počet slov: 1 363
Referát vhodný pre: Vysoká škola Počet A4: 3.8
Priemerná známka: 2.99 Rýchle čítanie: 6m 20s
Pomalé čítanie: 9m 30s

The author: Daniel Defoe (1660-1731) was born in London, the son of a butcher and candlestick merchant. Initially he became a businessman but eventually went he turned to writing. Much of his work was political and satirical, and one of his pamphlets even landed him in prison for three months. For twenty-five years he earned his income primarily from writing for newspapers and he even published his own periodical single-handedly for nine years. His first love was politics and he was very involved with the different political parties, for a while writing for one while he was actually a secret agent for the other. For the last twelve years of his life he focused on writing books and he is now primarily remembered as a novelist. His best known novels are Moll Flanders (1721) and Robinson Crusoe (1719).

Style: Defoe narrates in a matter-of-fact (documentary style). The narrator comments, but the characters can speak for themselves and are judged by their actions.

Setting: This novel begins in town of York where Robinson was born and brought up, but the plot is mostly set in an ihabited island somewhere between Africa and Brazil. The last part takes place in France. The period is 17th century.

Narrator: In novel is a first person narrator, who introduces himself as Robinson Crusoue. He is dramatized narrator, who has limited point of view.

Plot: One day Robinson told his parents that he didn´t want to study but to work on a boat, they were furious and his father forced him to work in the business. Robinson went instead of his father on a business journey to Hull where he met Martin who asked him to go with them on a short voyage to London. Robinson was for the first time on a boat and he felt seasick for the first time, he knew that there was a storm on the sea because it had sunk their boat before they had come to London. He swore he would never go on the boat. “I expected every Wave would have swallowed us up, and that every time the Ship fell down, as I thought, in the Trough or Hollow of the Sea, we should never rise more; and in this Agony of Mind, I made many Vows and Resolutions, that if it would please God here to spare my Life this one Voyage, if ever I got once my Foot upon dry Land again, I would go directly home to my Father, and never set it into a Ship again while I liv'd”. In the pub he met Dubbley and he wanted to go with him on a voyage to Africa.

On this voyage their boat was attacked by pirates and they put Robinson in jail in Morocco. He escaped on a small boat to Brazil. This boat was shipwrecked on a small island where Robinson stayed. On this island he found a cave where he could live, he learned how to make lot of things he tried to recognize the types of fruits, plants and animals. Once during a storm he heard a cannon so he lit a great fire. The next day he found a shipwrecked boat. He found nobody on the boat but tools, guns, kitchen utensils and food, which were very helpful for him, but he hoped for a companion on the first place so he was very disappointed .”O that there had been but one or two; nay, or but one Soul sav'd out of this Ship, to have escap'd to me, that I might but have had one Companion, one Fellow-Creature to have spoken to me, and to have convers'd with! In all the Time of my solitary Life I never felt so earnest, so strong a Desire after the Society of my Fellow-Creatures,or so deep a Regret at the want of it.”

He lived like this for 8 years, then he saw a couple of people and cannibals on a boat. Robinson was at first afraid and could not sleep, then he wanted to murder them and then he had a dream about saving one of them and from this moment he waited for them. When he finally spot the group of Karibi, which was the name of the tribe, he knew it was the time. He was able to save just one man and gave him the name Friday. He made him his servant, which was typical feature of English, who were colonisators. “He made all the Signs to me of Subjection, Servitude, and Submission imaginable, to let me know, how he would serve me as long as he liv'd; I understood him in many Things, and let him know, I was very well pleas'd with him.” „ I likewise taught him to say Master, and then let him know, that was to be my Name”. His life was better with Friday because he didn´t feel sick any more.

But they had a problem with another cannibals, they were shooting and saved Fridays´ father (Friday thought he was dead) and a Spanish man. Robinson was informed that on the nearby island there were some people. When our couple finished their boat, a Spanish man and Fridays´ father went on the island about which they had heard. Meanwhile the pirates came on the island of Robinson and they wanted to let here a captain John Brown with his people because the pirates had stolen his ship. Robinson and Friday saved them and got the ship back. Friday came to England with Robinson. Robinson was informed that his father is dead. At the end Robinson set in England and had a family. Robinson spent 28 years on the desert island.

Analysis: Defoe immediately introduces the major tension in his novel between adventure and security. The adventure exists as something inferior only in relation to the lifestyle of the middle class. This will be the standard by which all other lifestyles are judged. We can see Robinson's father as the voice of the author, urging his “irreligious” son to be content with a contented life. Robinson speaks for himself and himself alone. The image of the bobbing sea, constant only in its changes, correlates well to Robinson's person. When the captain offers to purchase Xury, he is truly playing the part of a savior, at least in Defoe's mind. Modern day readers cannot help but see this as slightly sarcastic: slavery is not often a device of deliverance. However, the author probably did not intend this reading. Xury is happy, even grateful to forsake his freedom.

One of the most prominent features is the contradictory sense of Robinson's behavior-civilization meets the wild. Defoe means for us to view the island as a completely distinct world, of which Crusoe is the colonizer. Robinson wants to stay as close to the civilised world as he can- he creates his own calendar to- remain sane. Robinson examines his past life and is “absolutely horrified” with himself. The diction is a bit extreme, but illustrates the mindset of the main character. The island has truly become his home, and he is very afraid of leaving it and never seeing it again. It is important to consider that the idea of escape is mentioned very briefly here, and without too much enthusiasm. The appearance of Friday will allow Crusoe to live out his role as ruler of the island. He is a typical english colonisator and the terminology referring to the captured men changes from “prisoners” to “my people” in the mind of the narrator. After crossing a myriad number of obstacles, Crusoe reaches wealth and security.

Robinson Crusoe: the main protagonist, son of a middle-class businessman. In his youth he is adventurous and reckeless, then as the plot goes he changes to responsible farmer and he becomes devout protestant. He acts as typical English man all the time.
Friday: a man from neigbouring island, he is member of a cannibal tribe. Robinson saves his life and therefore he is devoted to him and even willing to die fo him.He can learn easily, that is why he can speak with Robison and be a good companion for him.

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