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Streda, 20. októbra 2021
English syntax
Dátum pridania: 26.01.2006 Oznámkuj: 12345
Autor referátu: bahrom
Jazyk: Angličtina Počet slov: 4 616
Referát vhodný pre: Vysoká škola Počet A4: 14.3
Priemerná známka: 2.96 Rýchle čítanie: 23m 50s
Pomalé čítanie: 35m 45s
Is a word or a group of words denoting the person or a thing about which or whom something is said. It is normally realized by a noun phrase, but also by other realized by other phrases it can be realized.
Eg. These green apples are delicious.
Who is playing tomorow? Can be realized by pronoun.
The rich are not alwyas happy. Can be realized by an adjective.
Peter’s is the red car. Can be realized by genetive.
Today is Sunday. It can be an adverb phrase
There are a lot of students here. Can be realized by word „there“.
How the prisoner escaped is a complete mystery. We can have a finite phrase.
Lying in the sun, can be dangerous. We can have a non finite phrase.

In the statements the S normally goes before predicate and the verb in the predicate must agree with the subject so S dictates the form of the verb. This agreement between subject and predicate is called CONCORD /zhoda/.
We can talk about simple and compound subject. Simple S contains just one phrase and compound contains at least two phrases which are coordinates ny conjunctions and or or. Eg. John and his brother have gone out.

Semantic role of the subject
Can be associated with almost every type of semantic role.
I.With transitive verbs it denotes firsty an agent or doer /činiteľ/ of the action denoted by the verb.
My friend has written the letter.
II.Secondly we can say that S may denote an inanimite causer of an event.
The gail (víchrica) has broken windows.
It identifies the instrument.
The knife will help you open it.
We can talk about stative verbs- subject is a recipient /She owns a new flat./
We can also have so called ergative verbs in which object affectd become subject affected. The verbs like break, stop:
Somebody rained the bell.––––-The bell rained.
Somebody has moved the picture. ––––- The picture has moved.

Is what is said about the subject. Is a group of other words in a sentence except the subject. Contains a verb and depending on the type of main verb. In the verb phrase it may also contain other clause elements such as object, complement or adverbial.
The term verb has two meanings:
A.It is one clause element
B.It may be a member of word class /She might be leaving soon./
Verb is normally present in all clauses including the imperative clauses where the subject is usually absent. There are three main verb classes from synactic point of view: intransitive, transitive and copular verbs.
Intransitive verb do not take an object or other. They cannot be used in the passive clause. Eg. My head aches. It hurts.
Transitive verb requires an object. They express an action which passes over from the subject, doer of the action to the object, the receiver of the actionEg. The boy hit the dog.
Can be further divided into monotransitive, ditransitive and complex.
A.Monotransitive require just one object
I have bought a car.
B.Ditransitive require two objects
He showed Alice his book /to whom and what/
C.Complex require an object + complement
They named her daughter Jane./Nazvali ju Janou./
Or an object + adverbial
She put the pece of chalk on the desk.
Some verbs are always transitive- enjoy, bring, hurt, sleep.
Some verbs can be used both as transitive or intransitive- break, open
Copular verbs /linking verbs/ these are verbs that can reflect a state of being- to be, appear, seem, become, grow, turn, prove, remain, find
Or verbs which are related to fire senses- look, sound, smell, feel, taste.
These verbs are folowed by a subject, complement or adverbial.

The receiver of an action that passes over from the subject. It is normally an noun phrase but can also be realized by other phrases. It follows the verb in the active voice. It can become a subject of the passive voice. We distinguish two types:
1)DIRECT – refers to the person or thing affected by the action of the verb
It is in the Accusative case and answres the questions whom? Or what?
Eg. Please, do not annoy me.Can be realized by the
-noun phrase /He wrote a letter./ or by a noun phrase expressed by
-pronoun /John washed himself. They blamed each other./,
-genitive case /I’ll give you Mary’s./
-pro-forms so and not/I think so.I think not.-represents whole negative clause/
-non-finite clause /I enjoy lying in the sun./
Semantic role
Object can be the recipient /She gave me the keys.= príjemca/ or patient /She has hit me.= zasiahnutý dejom/ and has four functions:
A.AFFECTED- zasiahnutý dejom /She has asked John./
B.EFFECTED- usually resultant expressing the result of the activity /I have written the letter./
C.LOCATIVE and INSTRUMENTAL /He has crossed the park./
D.COGNANT- expresses a verbal notion (slovesný pojem), repeats the meaning of the preceeding word /Live a life. Sing a song./

2)INDIRECT refers to the person who benefits from the action expressed in the verb. It is usually in the denitive case and answers the questions to whom? or to what? If both objects are presented in a sentence, then the indirect object normally comes before the direct object.
Eg. Pass me the pen. He threw her a ball.Can be realized by
-noun phrase /Mother read her children a story./
-pronoun /I cut myself a slice of bread./
-finite clause /John gave, whoever it was, a present./
In most cases the indirect object is a person, but sometimes it can be a thing Eg.He gave his car a push. Give peace a chance.
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