We distinguish subject and object complement.
A.SUBJECT COMPLEMENT- follows copular verbs such as to be, seem, appear, become,.. It completes the sense of a sentence by telling us sth about the subject /She became a teacher in 1990./
The subject complement can be realised by a
-Noun phrase /He is a very good student./
-Pronoun /It is me./
-Adjective phrase /The wine taste sour. That sounds good./
-Past participle, participle adj. phrase /He passed unnoticed./
-Prepositional phrase /The tablecloth smells of beer./
-Clause /This is what I want./
B.OBJECT COMPLEMENT- completes the sense of a sentence by telling us sth about the object direct. It is used with complex transitive verbs that require an object and complement: appoint sb, elect sb, call sb.
Eg. They elected himOD chairmanCOMPL.It can be realized by
-Noun phrase /I found her a very good friend./
-Adjective phrase /I found the box empty./
-Past participle /He found his bicycle stolen./
-Finite clause /You made me what I am./
Is an optional clause element in most cases. Can have more than one position in a clause and can be realized by:
-Adverb phrase / He plays football very well./
-Prepositional phrase /They usually come in the afternoon./
-Finite clause /I saw her from where I stood./
-Noun phrase /Next Sunday, there will be a football match here./
BASIC SIMPLE SENTENCE PATTERNS (OR CLAUSE TYPES)
We distinguish clause types of a simple sentences
They differ from each other according to which other sentence elements except for subject and verb are obligatory. He verb element is always a finite verb phrase and subject must be expressed in simple sentence. These are also optional adverbials which can be added to any of these patterns.
1)SUBJECT + VERB/The sun is shining./
Verbs in this pattern are either intransitive or verbs which can be both transitive and intransitive.Adverbials are optional. Some intransitive verbs- ache, arrive, fly, hurt, step, shine, rain, snow, bark.
Eg. Time flies. She is been sleeping.
Some intransitive verbs can be followed by adverb particle. In that case they are called phrasal verbs- break down, stand up, take off, turn up, throw up,..
Verb which can be used both (transitive and intransitive): break, boil, open, ring, change, read, eat, drink, smoke, stop (in this pattern they can be used only as intransitive)
2)SUBJECT + VERB + OBJECT
Verb are monotransitive, they need a direct object. Most monotransitive verbs can be used in passive, direct object becomes the subject of the corresponding passive. /Eg. He lost his watch. His watch was lost. /
There are also verbs which are prepositional and phrasal verbs.
Prepositional are verbs always followed by preposition: to agree on, to ask for sth, to do with, believe in..
Phrasal verbs are followed by an adverb particle which modifies the verb. The verb and the particle form one unit of meaning which cannot be predicted from the meaning of the verb and particle separately or isolately.
DIRECT OBJECT can be a personal pronoun or non-personal pronoun.
When it is not a PP, it can go before and after particle/I switched the lights off. I switched off the lights.
If it is a PP, it must go between the verb and the particle./He switched it off./
We can have phrasal prepositional verbs with verb, particle and preposition. /put up with, look forward to/
3)SUBJECT + VERB + OBJECTi + OBJECTd
They are ditransitive verbs which require two objects, the indirect usually comes after the verb and it is followed by direct object. Indirect object answers the question to whom?, direct whom? or what?
Some verbs: ask sb sth, buy sb sth, get sb sth, pass, read, tell, sell
A few of them can also be monotransitive (one object), the indirect object can be omitted. /He sold me his car. He sold his car./
With a few verbs: ask, pay, show, teach, tell.. either object can be omitted.
Eg. He taught us physics. He taught us. He taught physics.
There are instances where direct object may come before the indirect, then IO is replaced by prepositional phrase introduced by to or for.
Eg.She showed me the photo. She showed the photo to me.
There are a few verbs that take the preposition to: bring, give, hand, offer, owe, pass, promise sth to sb, read, tell, send, show, throw, write
When we use preposition for with these verbs, we mean instead of.
Eg.I’ll send this letter to you.I’ll send this letter for you -namiesto teba
There are verbs which must be followed by preposition for: build sth for sb, buy, cut, fetch, get, leave, make, order. Sometimes the meaning depends on a context /I’ll cook dinner for you- uvarím ti večeru.
I’ll cook dinner for you- namiesto teba./
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