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Nedeľa, 15. septembra 2019
English syntax
Dátum pridania: 26.01.2006 Oznámkuj: 12345
Autor referátu: bahrom
Jazyk: Angličtina Počet slov: 4 616
Referát vhodný pre: Vysoká škola Počet A4: 14.3
Priemerná známka: 2.96 Rýchle čítanie: 23m 50s
Pomalé čítanie: 35m 45s
Verbs are complex transitive that meet the object and an adverbial.
Eg.I will make you first secretary. I am keeping most of my money in the bank. They let her into the room.

BASIC WORD ORDER in English sentence
English has only a few inflections compared to Slovak which has a lot of inflections. We have lose WO, English has fixed WO:
The WO is essential, fundamental to the meaning of the sentence. There are some variation in the basic WO.
a.There is inversion in questions, we use OPERATORS+SUBJECT+VERB.
Eg. What were you doing yesterday?
b.Then we can also see the change in reporting verbs in direct speech, recrossed WO.
Eg. You have spoilt this, cried Frank.
But it is not allowed when we use a pronoun.
Eg.You have spoilt this, he cried.
c.There is a change in some clauses. Usually when they begins with if.
Eg.If you meet him, tell him about it. (ordinary WO)

Other structure:
Eg.Should you meet (ak ho náhodou uvidíš), tell him about it.
d.In time references requiring special emphasis, adverbial of time are at the beginning of the clause.
Eg.Last time we went to the cinema.
Also the adverbial of frequency: always, never, also, just...which follow the verb to be and preceed the full verb are in the middle of the sentence.
Eg. She is always late.
EXCEPTION: adverb here is followed by the verb. Eg.Here comes the teacher.
The WO must be reversed when negative adverb or negative clause elements are put at the beginning of the sentence or are at the initial position.- never, scarcely, hardly, seldom. Eg.She has never heard of it. Never heard she about it.
There has never been such a conflict in a history. Never has such a conflict been...
Sometimes special WO begins the sentence with the object- fronting- for special emphasis. Eg. A fine mess you have made of this.

CONCORD (zhoda)
- relationship between two grammatical elements. One grammatical contains a feature that the other one has to have.
A.GRAMMATICAL CONCORD-typical grammatical concord is the concord of number between subject and the verb. A singular requires a singular verb, plural requirs plural verb.
Eg.The child is sleeping.- The chidren are sleeping.
A clause (veta) in the position of a subject counts as singular.
Eg.Teaching children is interesting. How he travelled here, does not concern me.
A few exceptions: some sg nouns ending in s (physics, mathematics, measles, biliards...) take sg.verbs. Plural nouns which lack the inflection (cattle, people, ..) take pl verb. Films, titles of the books, quotes though they are plural, noun phrases count as sg.
Eg. Three sisters by Cechov is... Romeo and Julia was on TV yesterday.
But the titles of some works which are collections of stories can be both sg and pl.
Eg. Canterbury Tales by Chaucer are/is...

B.NOTIONAL CONCORD is an agreement in which the idea of number is more important than the mark of sg or pl. Notion is more important. In BE collective nouns – staff, gouvernment are oftentreated as plural when the group is considered as a collection of individuals.
Eg. The audience were clapping.
Sometimes pl and sg are interchangeable with collective nouns. But in AM.E. collective nouns are generally treated as sg.
Eg. Gouvernment is, was, has..
In both AmE and BE plural pronouns are often used to refer to sg collective nouns. Even if the verb is singular.
Eg. The commitee has not yet decided how they shoul react to the letter.
C.RULE OF PROXIMITY denotes the agreement of the verb with a noun or pronoun that closely preceeds it.
Eg. A large number of students have passed.(modifier-a)
The number of students is high. (head of phrase is number)
If we have coordinated subjects:When a subject consists of two or more NP coordinated (priradený) by a plural verb, a plural verb is used even if the conjoins are in sg.

Eg. My mother and his friend are––, have gone to Prag.
But sometimes in a case of coordinated apposition (apozícia=prístavok):
Eg. The capital of Slovakia and city on Danube welcomes visitors.- sg verb is required, though there are two noun phrases, but they refer both to one entity.
When we have quasy-coordinators- along with, rather than,as well as, if, NP are linked by QC grammatical concord requires a sg verb if the first NP is singular.
Eg. The teacher as well as students was content (If and – was)
The same grammatical rule applies when the second phrase is negative.
Eg. The Prime Ministre, not the monarch, decides gouvernment policy.
A sg verbs is also required when the NP are qualifiers or in post modifying functions.
Eg.Wine from Italy and France is much lighter than our wine.
There are aso S phrases (clauses) coordinated with corelatives- either/or, neither/nor. Grammatical concord is clear, when the conjoints have the same numbers.
Eg. Either John or Mary has to come.
When conjoins differ in number, the rule of proximity is applied. The number of the second conjoint determines the number of the verb.
Eg. Either your brakes or your eyeside is at fort.
In less formal usage neither-nor are treated like conjunction and for concord then
Neither John, nor Mary have arrived. Neither John, nor Mary has arrived.
In definite expression as subject- indifinite pronoun-some...can be used with count or nouncountabele nouns. /Some have been stolen./
In the case of non-count nouns in reference to furniture /Some has been moved./
With none the plural verb is more frequently used because of notional concord and it depends on the countability of nouns. /None of the book have/has been stolen/
There are also other type of concord- of number- between S ans Scompl, O and Ocompl. Eg. I consider my friend a genius. I consider my friends geniuses.
My friend is a lawyer. My friends are lawyers
There are also some nouns where number, gender must be kept between S and O. A reflexive pronoun, S and O pronouns or possesive determiner must agree with its antecedent.
She has cut herself. He is making coffee for himself.
The pronoun they is commonly used as a third person sg pronoun that is neutral between masculin and feminin. Especially in reference to indefinite pronouns everybody, everyone, anyone, someone, somebody, anybody= they is used
Eg.Nobody has brought their books. Everyone thinks they will like it.
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