SENTENCE TYPES AND DISCOURSE FUNCTIONS
When we communicate we usually perform speech, act functions. We form clauses which are the major grammatic units used to give informations, seek for information, give directive (command). These are functions called illocutionary acts realised by moods.
Declarative mood- give information- express statement
Interrogative mood- seek for information- form questions
imperative mood- give directive, commands, requests
We can call sentence according to mood. Each mood type is basically associated with an illocutionary act. Thereare still one mood- exclamative by means of which explanations are formed. Those are the basic means of those moods but sometimes declarative sentence can have another illocutionary act.
I can ask you to open the window.- it is declarative sentence, we can express command.
Can you open the window?I make a command.
Could you pass me your pen?Requests=question-interogative mood
Have some more wine.Imperative mood-but I offer sth
A)DECLARATIVE CLAUSE- illocutionary act is give information
It is normal word order S-W-O according to clause patterns- 7 clause types. Semantically declarative structures express statements and are accompanied by falling intonation. The normal illocutionary force of a statementcan be changed in various types:
a)if it is spoken with raising intonation, it is interpreted as a question
She has left. Though it is declarative sentence it has raising intonation.
b)If the verb is in the form of modal auxiliary the clause can be used with the illocutionary force of a directive
She must stay there longer. MUST- illocutionary force express directive, command
They should do it today. More command than statement.
c)Intensifiers such as such, so, extremely, terribly... change the declarative force to exclamative mood.
He is such a liar. She is extremelly ill.
d)Performative verbs: I advise, warn, apologize... which express, denote the illocutionary force
I promise I would come.¬- not giving information
Declarative sentence can be:
o affirmative- kladná- positive idea, do not contain a negative element
o negative- záporná- negative element, can be formed from affirmative statements in the following ways:
by putting not- after the first auxiliary or modal auxiliary verb
You should not have gone there.
by putting do not, does not, did not after the subject before a full verb (bare infinitive)
by using words with negative meaning. There can be
adverbs- nowhere, seldom, scarcely, no more, never, barely, hardly, no longer, rarely, ever
Eg. She seldom goes to any parties.She rarely makes mistake.
negative pronouns- no, nobody, noone, none, neither, nor, not many, few, either
some verbs with negative meaning- without, against, too, only
verbs- to fail, forget, deny, prevent, avoid, refuse
adjective- hard, difficult, ignorant, unaware
nouns- absence, denial, refusal, failure
Eg. She refused any help.
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