The main concentration is on sentence. To constrict a sentence we need a lexicon which must have some meaning- it is the issue of semantic and words interfere within the sentence- it is the issue of syntax.
However, we do not learn only how to compose a correct sentence as an isolated unit but we learn how to use sentences in different context. A learner needs to know how to make and understand utterance which performs certain communicative acts.
Communicative grammar considers sentences in discourse groups sentences according to their meaning, not structure.
DISCOURSE can be defined as a stretch (súvislý úsek) of language consisting of several sentences which are perceived as being related in some way.
Thus in discourse sentences constitute a coherent unit (ucelená)
If we compare grammar and discourse we can say that grammar refers to the rules of language to form grammatical units such a phrase, clause and sentence. Discours, on the other hand refers to larger units of language such as paragraphes, speeches, interiews, conversations. We can say that language can be viewed in two ways:
1.as a formal system of grammatical structures
2.as a communicative systeme
When we analyze language as formal systeme, our primary unit of analysis will be the sentence or clause- central units of formal grammar.
When we analyze language as communication, an important unit of analysis is uterance.
On the level of abstraction, we can distinguish: the utterance, the sentence and the proposition/the most abstract is on this level/.
UTTERANCES occur in a contect as sounds or marks on paper. They are spoken or written by one individual to another individual, they are concrete and located in time and space.
SENTENCES on that level are much more abstract, they can exist independently of any person saying or writing them.
If they are said or written by someone they become utterances.
PROPOSITION are the most abstract, those are ideas expressed through sentences. It can be compared to the thought or ideas expressed by a sentence.
Is an arrangement of words which are meaningful and grammatically correct and at the same time the words serve for communication. They can be divided from certain point of view:
minor- if they are formed in irregular way
major- if they are formed in regular way
- they cannot be analysed into a sequence of clause elements /vetné členy/. There are only a few minor sentence types, but instances of each type are frequently used in everyday conversation and also when they are represented in fiction. They are also common in certain types of written language such as notices (No parking!), as headlines (Financial Times), as labels, advertisements ad so on. They do not follow all the rules of grammar.
The question „How do you do?“(idiomatic expression) is a minor sentence because we cannot change the person, tense without change of sense.
Some types of minor sentences look quite complex. On first impression they might be thought to be displaying a major pattern. But in each case there is something odd.
God save the queen.¬ pattern as in major sentence
Subjunctive (no saves- different meaning)
Few types of minor sentences: they can be formuled for social situations such as Hello, How do you do, Thanks, Bye. Than for example:
Interjections- Wow, Ouh
Proverbs- Out of sight, out of mind
Words and phrases in exclamations, questions,commands-Taxi! Nice day!
- are in vaste majority, they are sentences which can be broken down into a specific pattern of elements.
Gave a letter to Mary (subject+verb+object 1+object 2)
They can be divided into simple and multiple sentences.
Simple- is just one clause
I will never speak to her again.
Multiple- consist of more than one clause
I will never speak to her again unless she apologizes.
They can be subdivided into – compounds /priraďovacie súvetie/
Complex /podraďovacie súvetie/
We divide them according to whether the clauses are in relation of coordination /parataxis/ or subordination /hypotaxis/.
In English grammar the sentences is described as having five levels with different units:
Discourse level /celý súhrnný kontext/
Clause level /only 1 verb/
Phrase level /rovina fráz/
Word level /slová/
The level of phrases is an intermediate between the higher level of clauses and the lower level of words.
Phrases are seguences of words that can function as constituents or clause elements in the structure of sentences.The relation of phrases to clause elements is the relation of realization. Phrases are forms that realize clause elements. Phrases form not only syntactic units but also semantic units. They form coherent units of sense.
A noun phrase is a phrase that contains and is centered on a noun.
An adjective phrase is centered on an adjective so the head is adjective.
Eg. Short enough, extremely happy
A verb phrase consists of a verb plus all the words that follow in a simple sentence. We sometimes call it predicate.
Eg. Mary teaches two classes at harvard in the summer.
A prepositional phrase consist of a prepostion which is a chief element ans a noun phrase. Eg. In the corner of the room.
An adverb phrase consists of an adverb + its modifiers. Eg.extremely, quickly,..
A SIMPLE SENTENCE
Is the smallest sentence unit which consists of a single independant clause having two basic parts: subject and predicate.
Is a word or a group of words denoting the person or a thing about which or whom something is said. It is normally realized by a noun phrase, but also by other realized by other phrases it can be realized.
Eg. These green apples are delicious.
Who is playing tomorow? Can be realized by pronoun.
The rich are not alwyas happy. Can be realized by an adjective.
Peter’s is the red car. Can be realized by genetive.
Today is Sunday. It can be an adverb phrase
There are a lot of students here. Can be realized by word „there“.
How the prisoner escaped is a complete mystery. We can have a finite phrase.
Lying in the sun, can be dangerous. We can have a non finite phrase.
In the statements the S normally goes before predicate and the verb in the predicate must agree with the subject so S dictates the form of the verb. This agreement between subject and predicate is called CONCORD /zhoda/.
We can talk about simple and compound subject. Simple S contains just one phrase and compound contains at least two phrases which are coordinates ny conjunctions and or or. Eg. John and his brother have gone out.
Semantic role of the subject
Can be associated with almost every type of semantic role.
I.With transitive verbs it denotes firsty an agent or doer /činiteľ/ of the action denoted by the verb.
My friend has written the letter.
II.Secondly we can say that S may denote an inanimite causer of an event.
The gail (víchrica) has broken windows.
It identifies the instrument.
The knife will help you open it.
We can talk about stative verbs- subject is a recipient /She owns a new flat./
We can also have so called ergative verbs in which object affectd become subject affected. The verbs like break, stop:
Somebody rained the bell.––––-The bell rained.
Somebody has moved the picture. ––––- The picture has moved.
Is what is said about the subject. Is a group of other words in a sentence except the subject. Contains a verb and depending on the type of main verb. In the verb phrase it may also contain other clause elements such as object, complement or adverbial.
The term verb has two meanings:
A.It is one clause element
B.It may be a member of word class /She might be leaving soon./
Verb is normally present in all clauses including the imperative clauses where the subject is usually absent. There are three main verb classes from synactic point of view: intransitive, transitive and copular verbs.
Intransitive verb do not take an object or other. They cannot be used in the passive clause. Eg. My head aches. It hurts.
Transitive verb requires an object. They express an action which passes over from the subject, doer of the action to the object, the receiver of the actionEg. The boy hit the dog.
Can be further divided into monotransitive, ditransitive and complex.
A.Monotransitive require just one object
I have bought a car.
B.Ditransitive require two objects
He showed Alice his book /to whom and what/
C.Complex require an object + complement
They named her daughter Jane./Nazvali ju Janou./
Or an object + adverbial
She put the pece of chalk on the desk.
Some verbs are always transitive- enjoy, bring, hurt, sleep.
Some verbs can be used both as transitive or intransitive- break, open
Copular verbs /linking verbs/ these are verbs that can reflect a state of being- to be, appear, seem, become, grow, turn, prove, remain, find
Or verbs which are related to fire senses- look, sound, smell, feel, taste.
These verbs are folowed by a subject, complement or adverbial.
The receiver of an action that passes over from the subject. It is normally an noun phrase but can also be realized by other phrases. It follows the verb in the active voice. It can become a subject of the passive voice. We distinguish two types:
1)DIRECT – refers to the person or thing affected by the action of the verb
It is in the Accusative case and answres the questions whom? Or what?
Eg. Please, do not annoy me.Can be realized by the
-noun phrase /He wrote a letter./ or by a noun phrase expressed by
-pronoun /John washed himself. They blamed each other./,
-genitive case /I’ll give you Mary’s./
-pro-forms so and not/I think so.I think not.-represents whole negative clause/
-non-finite clause /I enjoy lying in the sun./
Object can be the recipient /She gave me the keys.= príjemca/ or patient /She has hit me.= zasiahnutý dejom/ and has four functions:
A.AFFECTED- zasiahnutý dejom /She has asked John./
B.EFFECTED- usually resultant expressing the result of the activity /I have written the letter./
C.LOCATIVE and INSTRUMENTAL /He has crossed the park./
D.COGNANT- expresses a verbal notion (slovesný pojem), repeats the meaning of the preceeding word /Live a life. Sing a song./
2)INDIRECT refers to the person who benefits from the action expressed in the verb. It is usually in the denitive case and answers the questions to whom? or to what? If both objects are presented in a sentence, then the indirect object normally comes before the direct object.
Eg. Pass me the pen. He threw her a ball.Can be realized by
-noun phrase /Mother read her children a story./
-pronoun /I cut myself a slice of bread./
-finite clause /John gave, whoever it was, a present./
In most cases the indirect object is a person, but sometimes it can be a thing Eg.He gave his car a push. Give peace a chance.
We distinguish subject and object complement.
A.SUBJECT COMPLEMENT- follows copular verbs such as to be, seem, appear, become,.. It completes the sense of a sentence by telling us sth about the subject /She became a teacher in 1990./
The subject complement can be realised by a
-Noun phrase /He is a very good student./
-Pronoun /It is me./
-Adjective phrase /The wine taste sour. That sounds good./
-Past participle, participle adj. phrase /He passed unnoticed./
-Prepositional phrase /The tablecloth smells of beer./
-Clause /This is what I want./
B.OBJECT COMPLEMENT- completes the sense of a sentence by telling us sth about the object direct. It is used with complex transitive verbs that require an object and complement: appoint sb, elect sb, call sb.
Eg. They elected himOD chairmanCOMPL.It can be realized by
-Noun phrase /I found her a very good friend./
-Adjective phrase /I found the box empty./
-Past participle /He found his bicycle stolen./
-Finite clause /You made me what I am./
Is an optional clause element in most cases. Can have more than one position in a clause and can be realized by:
-Adverb phrase / He plays football very well./
-Prepositional phrase /They usually come in the afternoon./
-Finite clause /I saw her from where I stood./
-Noun phrase /Next Sunday, there will be a football match here./
BASIC SIMPLE SENTENCE PATTERNS (OR CLAUSE TYPES)
We distinguish clause types of a simple sentences
They differ from each other according to which other sentence elements except for subject and verb are obligatory. He verb element is always a finite verb phrase and subject must be expressed in simple sentence. These are also optional adverbials which can be added to any of these patterns.
1)SUBJECT + VERB/The sun is shining./
Verbs in this pattern are either intransitive or verbs which can be both transitive and intransitive.Adverbials are optional. Some intransitive verbs- ache, arrive, fly, hurt, step, shine, rain, snow, bark.
Eg. Time flies. She is been sleeping.
Some intransitive verbs can be followed by adverb particle. In that case they are called phrasal verbs- break down, stand up, take off, turn up, throw up,..
Verb which can be used both (transitive and intransitive): break, boil, open, ring, change, read, eat, drink, smoke, stop (in this pattern they can be used only as intransitive)
2)SUBJECT + VERB + OBJECT
Verb are monotransitive, they need a direct object. Most monotransitive verbs can be used in passive, direct object becomes the subject of the corresponding passive. /Eg. He lost his watch. His watch was lost. /
There are also verbs which are prepositional and phrasal verbs.
Prepositional are verbs always followed by preposition: to agree on, to ask for sth, to do with, believe in..
Phrasal verbs are followed by an adverb particle which modifies the verb. The verb and the particle form one unit of meaning which cannot be predicted from the meaning of the verb and particle separately or isolately.
DIRECT OBJECT can be a personal pronoun or non-personal pronoun.
When it is not a PP, it can go before and after particle/I switched the lights off. I switched off the lights.
If it is a PP, it must go between the verb and the particle./He switched it off./
We can have phrasal prepositional verbs with verb, particle and preposition. /put up with, look forward to/
3)SUBJECT + VERB + OBJECTi + OBJECTd
They are ditransitive verbs which require two objects, the indirect usually comes after the verb and it is followed by direct object. Indirect object answers the question to whom?, direct whom? or what?
Some verbs: ask sb sth, buy sb sth, get sb sth, pass, read, tell, sell
A few of them can also be monotransitive (one object), the indirect object can be omitted. /He sold me his car. He sold his car./
With a few verbs: ask, pay, show, teach, tell.. either object can be omitted.
Eg. He taught us physics. He taught us. He taught physics.
There are instances where direct object may come before the indirect, then IO is replaced by prepositional phrase introduced by to or for.
Eg.She showed me the photo. She showed the photo to me.
There are a few verbs that take the preposition to: bring, give, hand, offer, owe, pass, promise sth to sb, read, tell, send, show, throw, write
When we use preposition for with these verbs, we mean instead of.
Eg.I’ll send this letter to you.I’ll send this letter for you -namiesto teba
There are verbs which must be followed by preposition for: build sth for sb, buy, cut, fetch, get, leave, make, order. Sometimes the meaning depends on a context /I’ll cook dinner for you- uvarím ti večeru.
I’ll cook dinner for you- namiesto teba./
These verbs such as admit, anounce, declay, deliver, demonstrate, describe, explain, introduce, mention, propose, prove, repeat, report, return, say, suggest must take a direct object which can be followed by a prepositional object introduced by to
Eg.He anounced his attention to me.
It is also possible to use IO followed by DO when the OD is too long, usually expressed by one clause.
Eg.He explained sth to me. He explained to me what his intention was.
Many ditransitive verbs take other preposition than to or for: accuse sb of sth, advice sb about sth, compare sth with, sentence sb for, suspect sb of sth, thank sb for sth.
Eg. They accused him of the theft.
Ditransitive verbs can therefor take two passive construction with either DO which becomes subject or IO.
/He sent me a long letter.I was sent a long letter.A long letter was sent to me./
4)SUBJECT + VERB + COMPLEMENT
Verbs are copular, link, intensive followed by subject complement. We call them link because we use them to lik what the subject is. SUBJECT COMPLEMENT characterise the subject. Most common verb is to be, to go mad, bad, grow rich, grow dark, go red, turn cold, turn yellow..
All these verbs of becoming are related to coplements. SC normally cannot be an adverb, but there are some exceptions with the verb feel /He feels well- wealthy./, with some adverbs /the performance is over./
And after certain copular verbs such as: appear, feel, look, seem, sound, both BE and AM prefer an infinitive constructions with the verb to be rather than simply a non phrase.
Eg. It appears an only situation. It appears to be the only situation.
5)SUBJECT + VERB + OBJECT + COMPLEMENT
/They appointed him Ministre of Foreign Affaires./
The verbs are complex transitive that require an object and object complement: appoint, call, consider, crown, declare, drive mad, elect, find, get, keep, leave, make, name, prefer, pronounce, prove, think, want sth done.
Eg. He called her an angel. We consider situation alarming. I declare the meeting open. He had his car repaired. She made her husband happy. He kept the garden beautiful.
Some complex transitive verbs are followed by prepositions. Mainly most of them as /threat as/ and for /they took me for a fool/
There are also verbs which form verb-adjective collocations
/boil an egg hard- variť vajcia na tvrdo, freeze sth hard- veľmi zmraziť, open sth vide, push sth open, set sb free/
6)SUBJECT + VERB + ADVERBIAL
Except for clause type SVA and SVOA, adverbial is optional clause. Because the adverbials in grammarians call them complements. Some of the verbs: copular to be, come, get, go, lie, leave, stay somewhere, remain somewhere.
Adverbial usually refers to position or direction, especially of place and other of time, manner, duration.
Eg. Peter stayed in kitchen. All ways lead to Rome. The course lasted three weeks.
Verbs are complex transitive that meet the object and an adverbial.
Eg.I will make you first secretary. I am keeping most of my money in the bank. They let her into the room.
BASIC WORD ORDER in English sentence
English has only a few inflections compared to Slovak which has a lot of inflections. We have lose WO, English has fixed WO:
SUBJECT+VERB+OBJECT+manner, place, time ADVERBIAL (SVOMPT)
The WO is essential, fundamental to the meaning of the sentence. There are some variation in the basic WO.
a.There is inversion in questions, we use OPERATORS+SUBJECT+VERB.
Eg. What were you doing yesterday?
b.Then we can also see the change in reporting verbs in direct speech, recrossed WO.
Eg. You have spoilt this, cried Frank.
But it is not allowed when we use a pronoun.
Eg.You have spoilt this, he cried.
c.There is a change in some clauses. Usually when they begins with if.
Eg.If you meet him, tell him about it. (ordinary WO)
Eg.Should you meet (ak ho náhodou uvidíš), tell him about it.
d.In time references requiring special emphasis, adverbial of time are at the beginning of the clause.
Eg.Last time we went to the cinema.
Also the adverbial of frequency: always, never, also, just...which follow the verb to be and preceed the full verb are in the middle of the sentence.
Eg. She is always late.
EXCEPTION: adverb here is followed by the verb. Eg.Here comes the teacher.
The WO must be reversed when negative adverb or negative clause elements are put at the beginning of the sentence or are at the initial position.- never, scarcely, hardly, seldom. Eg.She has never heard of it. Never heard she about it.
There has never been such a conflict in a history. Never has such a conflict been...
Sometimes special WO begins the sentence with the object- fronting- for special emphasis. Eg. A fine mess you have made of this.
- relationship between two grammatical elements. One grammatical contains a feature that the other one has to have.
A.GRAMMATICAL CONCORD-typical grammatical concord is the concord of number between subject and the verb. A singular requires a singular verb, plural requirs plural verb.
Eg.The child is sleeping.- The chidren are sleeping.
A clause (veta) in the position of a subject counts as singular.
Eg.Teaching children is interesting. How he travelled here, does not concern me.
A few exceptions: some sg nouns ending in s (physics, mathematics, measles, biliards...) take sg.verbs. Plural nouns which lack the inflection (cattle, people, ..) take pl verb. Films, titles of the books, quotes though they are plural, noun phrases count as sg.
Eg. Three sisters by Cechov is... Romeo and Julia was on TV yesterday.
But the titles of some works which are collections of stories can be both sg and pl.
Eg. Canterbury Tales by Chaucer are/is...
B.NOTIONAL CONCORD is an agreement in which the idea of number is more important than the mark of sg or pl. Notion is more important. In BE collective nouns – staff, gouvernment are oftentreated as plural when the group is considered as a collection of individuals.
Eg. The audience were clapping.
Sometimes pl and sg are interchangeable with collective nouns. But in AM.E. collective nouns are generally treated as sg.
Eg. Gouvernment is, was, has..
In both AmE and BE plural pronouns are often used to refer to sg collective nouns. Even if the verb is singular.
Eg. The commitee has not yet decided how they shoul react to the letter.
C.RULE OF PROXIMITY denotes the agreement of the verb with a noun or pronoun that closely preceeds it.
Eg. A large number of students have passed.(modifier-a)
The number of students is high. (head of phrase is number)
If we have coordinated subjects:When a subject consists of two or more NP coordinated (priradený) by a plural verb, a plural verb is used even if the conjoins are in sg.
Eg. My mother and his friend are––, have gone to Prag.
But sometimes in a case of coordinated apposition (apozícia=prístavok):
Eg. The capital of Slovakia and city on Danube welcomes visitors.- sg verb is required, though there are two noun phrases, but they refer both to one entity.
When we have quasy-coordinators- along with, rather than,as well as, if, NP are linked by QC grammatical concord requires a sg verb if the first NP is singular.
Eg. The teacher as well as students was content (If and – was)
The same grammatical rule applies when the second phrase is negative.
Eg. The Prime Ministre, not the monarch, decides gouvernment policy.
A sg verbs is also required when the NP are qualifiers or in post modifying functions.
Eg.Wine from Italy and France is much lighter than our wine.
There are aso S phrases (clauses) coordinated with corelatives- either/or, neither/nor. Grammatical concord is clear, when the conjoints have the same numbers.
Eg. Either John or Mary has to come.
When conjoins differ in number, the rule of proximity is applied. The number of the second conjoint determines the number of the verb.
Eg. Either your brakes or your eyeside is at fort.
In less formal usage neither-nor are treated like conjunction and for concord then
Neither John, nor Mary have arrived. Neither John, nor Mary has arrived.
In definite expression as subject- indifinite pronoun-some...can be used with count or nouncountabele nouns. /Some have been stolen./
In the case of non-count nouns in reference to furniture /Some has been moved./
With none the plural verb is more frequently used because of notional concord and it depends on the countability of nouns. /None of the book have/has been stolen/
There are also other type of concord- of number- between S ans Scompl, O and Ocompl. Eg. I consider my friend a genius. I consider my friends geniuses.
My friend is a lawyer. My friends are lawyers
There are also some nouns where number, gender must be kept between S and O. A reflexive pronoun, S and O pronouns or possesive determiner must agree with its antecedent.
She has cut herself. He is making coffee for himself.
The pronoun they is commonly used as a third person sg pronoun that is neutral between masculin and feminin. Especially in reference to indefinite pronouns everybody, everyone, anyone, someone, somebody, anybody= they is used
Eg.Nobody has brought their books. Everyone thinks they will like it.
SENTENCE TYPES AND DISCOURSE FUNCTIONS
When we communicate we usually perform speech, act functions. We form clauses which are the major grammatic units used to give informations, seek for information, give directive (command). These are functions called illocutionary acts realised by moods.
Declarative mood- give information- express statement
Interrogative mood- seek for information- form questions
imperative mood- give directive, commands, requests
We can call sentence according to mood. Each mood type is basically associated with an illocutionary act. Thereare still one mood- exclamative by means of which explanations are formed. Those are the basic means of those moods but sometimes declarative sentence can have another illocutionary act.
I can ask you to open the window.- it is declarative sentence, we can express command.
Can you open the window?I make a command.
Could you pass me your pen?Requests=question-interogative mood
Have some more wine.Imperative mood-but I offer sth
A)DECLARATIVE CLAUSE- illocutionary act is give information
It is normal word order S-W-O according to clause patterns- 7 clause types. Semantically declarative structures express statements and are accompanied by falling intonation. The normal illocutionary force of a statementcan be changed in various types:
a)if it is spoken with raising intonation, it is interpreted as a question
She has left. Though it is declarative sentence it has raising intonation.
b)If the verb is in the form of modal auxiliary the clause can be used with the illocutionary force of a directive
She must stay there longer. MUST- illocutionary force express directive, command
They should do it today. More command than statement.
c)Intensifiers such as such, so, extremely, terribly... change the declarative force to exclamative mood.
He is such a liar. She is extremelly ill.
d)Performative verbs: I advise, warn, apologize... which express, denote the illocutionary force
I promise I would come.¬- not giving information
Declarative sentence can be:
o affirmative- kladná- positive idea, do not contain a negative element
o negative- záporná- negative element, can be formed from affirmative statements in the following ways:
by putting not- after the first auxiliary or modal auxiliary verb
You should not have gone there.
by putting do not, does not, did not after the subject before a full verb (bare infinitive)
by using words with negative meaning. There can be
adverbs- nowhere, seldom, scarcely, no more, never, barely, hardly, no longer, rarely, ever
Eg. She seldom goes to any parties.She rarely makes mistake.
negative pronouns- no, nobody, noone, none, neither, nor, not many, few, either
some verbs with negative meaning- without, against, too, only
verbs- to fail, forget, deny, prevent, avoid, refuse
adjective- hard, difficult, ignorant, unaware
nouns- absence, denial, refusal, failure
Eg. She refused any help.
The crossword puzzle is too difficult to anyone to solve it.