By placing the student at the center, we mean that we focus our energy to towards him/her, and concentrate on what he/she is learning and how the language is being used. It is a shift in paradigm, and as such, the tools used must be appropriate. It is decentralizing the task of teaching to the whole class, the students, and away from the teacher.
Student-Centered Teaching, being directed towards learning as a whole person including intellect as well as feelings, also known as experiential learning.
The focus of the student-centred teacher moves away from the teacher and/or the content towards the learner: Who are the learners? What preparation do they have? How do they learn best? And how might they best master the particular content to be taught? The student-centred teacher focuses on student motivation and ways to direct students' interest and energy toward the material and the learning. Teaching involves getting to know students, finding out what they know, finding out about student misunderstandings, intervening to change them and creating a context of learning which encourages students to actively engage with the subject matter.
Being more student-centred does not mean that teachers must meet everyone's felt needs. Not only does this set up an unattainable standard, but also some students narrowly define their needs as never straying beyond comfortable ways of thinking, acting, and learning.
The student-centred professor is accessible - both physically and psychologically. Announced office hours are a traditional way of communicating accessibility, even though only a minority will use them. More important is the "psychological" accessibility of the professor. Coming to class early, talking with students, and staying after class helps to communicate psychological accessibility. Of course, a warm, receptive attitude when meeting with students is essential.
Student-centred teachers also solicit feedback from their students. Interpersonal relationships require a dialogue, so any method that encourages students to communicate will help form personal bonds. Students will feel valued if the professor solicits their comments, and instructors are more likely to know when to clarify content or give emotional support if students feel freer to raise concerns. Some students require little encouragement, but active solicitation of feedback will help form and improve relationships with the less comfortable.
If students see work as consistent with their own goals, they are less likely to respond to it simply as a frustrating task imposed by an educational authority. Giving students choices (about when to schedule an exam, a film, or a lab session, for example) also increases their feeling of freedom in the classroom. At the same time, the fact that the instructor reserves the right to make important decisions about course requirements communicates to students that the teacher is firmly in charge.
The Student-Centered approach is based on the empirically proved hypothesis that students achieve superior academic results and even personal growth in terms of higher self-confidence, openness to experience, etc., if they learn in an atmosphere or climate that can be characterized by three basic attitudinal conditions: realness, acceptance, and empathic understanding. These necessary and sufficient conditions must be held or lived by the instructor, better facilitator, and reciprocally be perceived by the students.
•Realness, genuineness, or transparency in the facilitator means that he or she must be real in the relationship with his/her student, be the person he/she is and not use any masks of facades in communicating with the students.
•Acceptance, prizing, or respect towards student implies that the facilitator accepts and respects the whole personality of the student and feels basic trust in his or her constructive tendency, his/her striving for solutions in his/her own way.
•Deep understanding, often called empathic understanding, means that the facilitator actively listens to the students with the ultimate goal to profoundly understand their questions, motivations, intentions, and the meanings of their communication as well as solutions.
Student-centred teaching requires much interaction between students and facilitators. Which is quite hard in our schools because in each class there are about 30 pupils (students). Student-centred teaching can be suggested only for rather small groups, say up to 20 students.
Student-centred teaching is very flexible. Teacher can use student`s own ideas, opinions, experiences which causes that learners express their ideas freely, they are concerned and also motivated. It also allows teachers to introduce local or international issues and ideas which are of current interest to particular groups (cultural events, scientific developments, elections). Learner input may be especially important where is no up-to-date English-language coverage of such topics available.
The activities for a particular group are chosen to meet the current needs of its members. As students carry out an activity, teachers can spot the gaps in their target language competence and introduce suitable practice activities in subsequent lessons.
Learners are also authors. Language practice is doubled in student-centred teaching because learners are involved in preparing as well as using the practice materials. They are clearly interested in how others will use what they have prepared.
As materials are not available in advance, there is a strong element of surprise. Not only do the learners not know what is coming before the lesson starts, but they are often unable to predict how the lesson will develop, and how the material they have produced will be used.
In groups with similar learning experiencies there are always different levels of language competence so student-centred teaching encourages students to work together and learn from each other. Activities are structured so that learners have to pay attention to what their colleagues are saying. They can teach and correct each other. Learners are working with one another, not in competition with one another.
The potential value of student-centred approaches includes:
1. improved student learning, because it:
•reflects students' varying prior experience of learning
•engages students with their own learning
•incorporates formative feedback to facilitate personal reflection on development
2. a more effective response to the demands of mass higher education than simply applying an elite education approach to larger classes
3. a more interesting life for the teacher
4. developing students' responsibility for their learning, with concomitant effects on their potential professionalism
I think that many teachers have never heard about student-centred teaching. Most of them think there is no time to know the students better because there is a curriculum which they must follow. Also we are not used to student-centred teaching.
Even those who tend to be student-centred by nature need some group experience or other kinds of opportunities to mature and grow into their roles as facilitators. Consequently, we understand that unless administration develops some reward-systems for acknowledging the quality of teaching, Student-centred teaching will stay with the disadvantage of requiring more professionally not respected effort than traditional teaching styles.
Teachers may avoid student-centred approaches for many reasons, from both the teacher's and the students' point of view. These may include:
•"the old approach was good enough for me"
•"I need to cover the syllabus"
•"I am the expert"
•"the students don't like it"
•"I can't control what happens in class"
•"my preparation does not give me the usual confidence"
•"the students don't get a uniform experience"
Some learners feel that they are learning only when talking or listening to the teacher, and do not see the benefit of working with other students. Other learners may have a low opinion of themselves and feel that they cannot contribute to the lesson. But also some learners may simply not be interested in one another.
Teachers are faced with the responsibility for the sequence of events in the classroom. Also they must have a very clear idea of where the activity is leadin, and how it is organized, and must give very accurate and precise instructions.
Students don't like SCT:So we:
because it is differenthelp them to understand how they learn
because it forces them to take responsibilityapplaud
because it forces them to thinkapplaud
because they feel cheatedhelp them to understand how they learn
Ďaľšie referáty z kategórie
|Jazyk:||Počet slov:||1 314|
|Referát vhodný pre:||Vysoká škola||Počet A4:||4.7|
|Priemerná známka:||2.94||Rýchle čítanie:||7m 50s|
|Pomalé čítanie:||11m 45s|