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Nedeľa, 31. mája 2020
George Gordon Byron: Biography
Dátum pridania: 27.04.2006 Oznámkuj: 12345
Autor referátu: brisid
Jazyk: Angličtina Počet slov: 1 274
Referát vhodný pre: Vysoká škola Počet A4: 4.1
Priemerná známka: 2.99 Rýchle čítanie: 6m 50s
Pomalé čítanie: 10m 15s
- was born in London and came from a poor, split noble family. He often got into a contrariety to his surroundings, that’s why he lived on his own accord abroad.
- some circumstances from his youthful life can declare his rebellious temper: he was lame from his birth (this inferiority complex compensated by different exploits, e.g. sailing past Hel-ensport). His unhappy childhood spent in poorness in Scotland where he moved after divorce his parents. There he lived with his impulsive and rough mother. When he was ten he surprisingly inherited the title and became to prepare to parliamentary career.
- in 1815 married Annabel Milbank but marriage wasn’t happy. One year later they divorced probably because of Augusta (his half-sister) who he loved very much.
- the society reproached him for offences against morality (he tempted lord’s and congressmen’s wives and addled their daughters heads) and also because he was politically dangerous.

- immediately after divorce with Annabel, Byron decided to leave England for longer time but he didn’t know it will be as a permanency. He stayed in Switzerland and Italy in last few years. Later became a member of some secret organisation of carbonars.
- in summer 1823 shipped away to Greece to fight for redemption of country from under Turkish yoke. He stayed at west Greece town Mesolongion but he fevered and on 19 April 1824 died.

- an author of romantic prose (byronism)
- made up the type of solitary rioters
- became an author of European gigantism (giant = a strong personality, who can’t win in unfair fight),
- made up some new characters – prisoner and vagrant
- his verse doesn’t have neither Wordsworth´s vividness nor Coleridge´s mysteriousness and his words are connotative (they doesn’t have other meanings).
- Byron talks less about nature than most of the other romantic poets (Shelley, Keats, Coleridge, Wordsworth, Southey) because he was less disenchanted with people and urban life than they were (he talked more about society).
- on the other hand Byron is far more keenly aware of the beauty and inspiration of nature than most of the late eighteenth century poets
- also wrote about injustice, tyranny and sectarianism and zeal for liberty.

- his writing was so influential that it produced a literary type, which we now call the Byronic Hero. Characteristic of this type of hero are extreme idealism and pessimism, an outrageous re-belliousness oddly coupled to a conventional piousness, and a balance of action and meditation
- he was the first real celebrity poet, largely because he was, as many of our modern celebrities, sexually provocative and interesting.
- wrote about liberation from the restrictive norms of sexuality. This is evident in Don Juan - a unfinished comic epos where Byron embraced life, love and, for a time, religion, but always with a sense of defiance.

- during studying on Cambridge wrote a set of juvenile lyric Hours of Idleness (criticised in Edinburgh Review)
- on this justified critic Byron answered by a satiric poem English Bards and Scotch Review-ers, where wrongfully attacked Southey, Wordsworth, Coleridge, Scott, Moor and mainly the general editor Francis Jeffrey because he thought he is an author of the critic.
- set of lyrical poems Hebrew Melodies - through biblical theme and romantic mystification generalised historical fortune of liberal-minded humanity hating persecution.
- Song for the Luddites - took English luddites sides

- his life, opinions on England and Europe described in autobiographical poem Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage - describes journey and thoughts of pilgrim (a new type of hero), who is disen-chanted by world without love and true-hearted sentiment.
- hero (pilgrim)-author feels lonely, abandoned and disappointed in a world of fun, inveigh against tyranny and lack of freedom slavery nations.
- In 1812 and later Byron wrote many poetic tales and popular oriental stories where figures his typical romantic heroes. Most of these poems are written in elegiac couplet and bound to region round Mediterranean Sea

- The Giaour, The bride of Abydos, The Corsair, Lara - romantic stories of tragic love, fights and death, they contains author’s thoughts and feelings.
- The Siege of Corinth, Parisina, Beppo - tragic romantic poems
- The Prisoner of Chillon - romantic poem
- theme is zeal for liberty
- the story is enacted in a castle Chillon, where is confinement one of 6 sons (Bonnivard) of a executed rebel. After many years they rescue him but he is not able to live at liberty and he languishes the prison
- in this poem are expressed desires of Swiss to set free from under foreign dominance.
- Mazeppa - romantic story

- adventures of Ukrainian officer who at the side of Swedish king Charles XII. fought against Peter the Great
- The Lament of Tasso - dramatic monologue
- imprisonment poet who felt in love with Leonora d´Este
- The Prophecy of Dante - dramatic monologue
- a poetical vision of liberation of Italy.
- in his tragedies and dramatic poems figures typical romantic heroes - individualists, e.g. Man-fred
- in tragedies with biblical and historical themes Cain, Marino Faliero, The Two Foscari, Sar-danapalus - the cult of revolutionary personality joins with anti-religious tendencies.

- in 1822 Byron and Leigh Hunt started the magazine The Liberal. In first issue published a satire The Vision of Judgement - resolve a dispute with Southey. The second issue brought his drama
Heaven and Earth.
- among Byron´s final works belongs tragedy Werner, a beautiful verse tale The Island, satire The Age of Bronze inspired by Verona´s congress and unfinished drama The Deformed Trans-formed.

Byron´s poetry overlaps national and social frame and has great influence on European romantic moves. It roused against persecution, against political, religious and moral disguise, ravished by innovation of oriental scenery, steady indeterminateness, effective expressiveness and fluency of verse, that’s because it became an unthinkable part of world literature.

... Roll on, thou deep and dark blue Ocean - roll!
Ten thousand fleets sweep over thee in vain;
Man marks the earth with ruin - his control
Stops with the shore; - upon the watery plain
The wrecks are all thy deed, nor doth remain
A shadow of man’s ravage, save his own,
When, for a moment, like a drop in rain,
He sinks into thy depths with bubbling groan -
Without a grave - unknelled, uncoffined, and unknown,
(from Childe Harold)

Such is your cold coquette, who can’t say ´No´,
And won’t say ´Yes´, keeps you on and off-ing
On a lee-shore, till it begins to blow -
Then sees your heart wrecked, with an inward scoffing.
This works a world of sentimental woe,
And sends new Werters yearly to their coffin;
But yet is merely innocent flirtation,
Not quite adultery, but adulteration.
(from Don Juan)

(from Hebrew Melodies)
Away! we know that tars are vain
That death nor heeds nor hears distress:
Will this unteach us to complain?
Or make one mourner weep the less?
And thou-who tell´st me to forget,
Thy looks are wan, thine eyes are wet.

(from Hebrew Melodies)
Thy days are done, thy fame begun;
Thy country´s strains record
The triumphs of her chosen Son,
The slaughters of his sword!
The deeds he did, the fields he won,
The freedom he restored!

Bright be the place of thy soul!
No lovelier spirit than thine
E´er burst from its mortal control,
In the orbs of the blessed to shine.
On earth thou wert all but divine,
As thy soul shall immortally be;
And our sorrow may case to reptine
When we know that thy God is with thee.

Light be the turf of thy tomb!
May its verdure like emeralds be!
There should not be the shadow of gloom
In aught that reminds us of thee
Young flowers and an evergreen tree
May spring from the spot of thy rest:
But nor cypress nor yew let us see;
For why should we mourn for the blest?
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