– Všetko čo študent potrebuje
Streda, 27. októbra 2021
Dátum pridania: 13.02.2006 Oznámkuj: 12345
Autor referátu: imroradko
Jazyk: Angličtina Počet slov: 3 615
Referát vhodný pre: Gymnázium Počet A4: 12
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Since the half of 18. century many Slovak intellectuals had worked in Nitra and in 1792 the third branch of Slovenské učené tovarišstvo (Slovak Society of Scholars) came into existence in Nitra. They supported slovak national, cultural and economic revival and propagated slovak literature. Head of Society was Anton Bernolak. At the turn of 18. and 19. centuries worked for Society about 40 members. Some of them were:
Anton Ďateľ, Jozef Nejedlý, Alexander Alagovič, bishop František Hábel, later bishops František Fuchs, Jozef Vurum, officer Martin Bielik etc.
F. A. Lang - pharmacist in Nitra in 1832 - 1852. For his scientific research and publications was a member of many professional associations abroad. In 1848 he launched issuing of the first pharmaceutical periodical in Hungarian Kingdom called Lekárnické listy - Letters on Pharmacy.

Dr. Ľudovít Okánik - the first Nitra zhupan after Czechoslovakia came into existence, being appointed in 1919 by Minister dr. Vavro Šrobár.
Dr. Ján Jesenský - last Nitra zhupan, 1923 - 1928, famous Slovak poet. In 1928 zhupa administrative system was abolished.
Karol Cobori - a long-time mayor of Nitra between WWI and WWII
Edmund Massanyi - (1907 - 1966), a famous painter born and worked in Nitra. He studied in Prague, Vienna and Munich. He created a great deal of fresco painting in the churches over Slovakia and worked as an illustrator and portraitist as well.
Julius Bartfay - (1888 - 1979), great sculptor having lived in Nitra. Founder of Slovak sculptor.

Benedictine monastery of St. Hyppolite in Zobor
At the foot of Zobor hill still lies in ruins former monastery. Its foundation is not known yet. It is believed that the origin dates back in the 9th century in the great moravian period, but at the end of the 10th century stood at the latest. Whenever built, it is the oldest monastery in Slovakia.
In Zobor monastery lived monks ruled by an abbot. The benedictines are an agricultural order which teach people living near their possesions to proggresive farming. They planted vineyards on Zobor and lay the foundations to winegrowing and viniculture which became famous later in Nitra. Abbey property stretched discontinuitly over west present-day Slovakia. The monastery was involved in "Zoborské listiny", Zobor documents, the oldest and the most precious well-preserved documents of Slovakia. They were written in 1111 and 1113 and now are kept in the Castle. The first document solves a dispute between the monastery and royal collectors taxes about ownership of the tolls. The latter document of 1113 contains the inventory of the Zobor abbey and describes more than 150 villages. The monastery provided shelter for the marchents and their goods which were safe here during the night, before going on. The monks had lived here until 1468 when administrator of the see Ján Vitéz took over the monastery and asked the king Matthias Corvinus to revert to the Pope to confirm this state. The Pope Paul II issued the Bull, on 17 September 1468, and handed over the possesions of the monastery to the See. In 1471 the building was destroyed by Polish troops of Kazimír.

Bishop Blažej Jaklin built a new monastery on the same place in 1692 - 1695 for the Camaldolese Order. Beside praying and manual labour, the monks dealt with the trade and the science. Philologian, the author of Latin-Slovak dictionary P. Romuald Hadbavný worked here. The monastery served as the only one noviciate for the Camaldolese order in Hungarian Kingdom. In 1782, the Emperor Joseph II abolished numerous monasteries and "Zobor" was among them. The building later served to several purposes. The cloth manufactory had worked here since 1786. However, a couple of years later turned bankrupt. In 1850 the building was bought by Bishop Roškováni. As the building was set in agreeable ambient conditions, Bishop constituted here the facility for people with lungs diseases which was visited by the guests even from Balkan. The tavern here was a famous place for the trips. In 1930´s the mansard roof was built and on July 1, 1953 the sanatory was opened.

The orders in Nitra
Order - (lat. Ordo) - a community of persons living in seclusion from the world, under religious vows and subject to a fixed rule, as monks, friars, nuns, or in general as religious. A specific offshoot of the orders were the Military Orders.
Benedictines - Ordo Sancti Benedicti - The Benedictine Order is the oldest in western Europe and comprises monks living under the Rule of St. Benedict. St. Benedict of Nursia, is the founder of western monasticism, born at Nursia, in 480, died at Monte Cassino, 543. He founded the celebrated Abbey of Monte Cassino in 529, which eventually become the centre whence his Rule and institute spread. They seated in Nitra between 9th or 10th century to 1470.
Camaldolese - Camaldulensians - A joint order of hermits and cenobites, founded by St. Romuald (951 - 1027) at the beginning of the eleventh century. About 1012, after having founded or reformed nearly a hundred unconnected monasteries and hermitages, St. Romuald arrived in the Diocese of Arezzo in Tuscony, seeking place for a new hermitage. There the famous hermitage afterwards known as Campus Maldoli or Camaldoli was built. The order officially come into existence when the Bull "Nulli fidelium", of Alexander II, in 1072 was issued. The Camaldolese Order had worked in Nitra in Zobor monastery from 1695 to 1782.

Franciscans - a mendicant order founded by St. Francis of Assisi in 1209. They appeared in Nitra in 1230 or 1238 having their monastery at the edge of then town until 1552, when their monastery was destroyed by the Turks. The Franciscans came back in the town in 1630 and new monastery and church built Bishop Telegdy for them which are still standing.
Piarists - called also Clerks Regular of the Pious Schools, Scolopli, Escolapios, Poor Clerks of the Mother of God, and the Pauline Congregation, a religious order founded in Rome in 1597 by St. Joseph Calasanctius. The Piarists have won distinction in the sphere of education. Their first care is to provide education. They had a province in Hungary and in 1698 they came from Prievidza in Nitra and established a higher Catholic Grammar school. Later a church was built and is still one of the landmarks of the town.

Nazarenes - Spanish order, founded by Ján Varela in 1750. There were called to Nitra in 1766 from Spain by Bishop Gustíni who built a monastery for them at the church on Marian hill to look after the church and people traveling here regularly for pilgramage. One year later the monks left, because the order was not confirmed neither by the pope nor by the monarch and the Nazarenes were abolished by a royal decree.
Vincentians - Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul (1580 - 1660). A congregation of women with simple vows, founded in 1633 and devoted to corporal and spiritual works of mercy. Their full title is Sisters or Daughters of Charity (the founder preferred the latter term), Servants of the Sick Poor. The term "of St. Vincent de Paul" has been added to distinguish them form several communities of Sisters of Charity, animated with a similar spirit, among whom they rank in priority of origin and greatness of numbers. They were called to Nitra by Bishop Palúcky on September 9, 1861 from Graz. Their mission were upbringing of girls and established the schools of all levels for girls here. A church for them was built in the half of the 19th century in th centre of the town.

Premonstratensian Canons - (Canonici Regulares Prémonstratenses). Founded in 1120 by St. Norbert at Prémontré, near Laon, France. At first they were not bound by any fixed rule, charity being the bond of their union, and the example of their founder their rule of life. They appeared in Nitra in 1939.

In the 9th century there was not a big difference between a farmer and a craftsman. However, some of the specialised craftsmen such as arms manufactures or jewellers may have worked in major fortified settlements, where was demand after their products. Beside them, pottery, glass makers, smiths and stonemasonry was in existence.
In the 12th century Nitra had flourishing farming and was a prominent market place, where the craftsmen sold their goods in regular markets.
In the 13th century Nitra had a municipal spirit and September 2, 1248 was chartered. This enabled even deeper development of crafts and trade.
However, in 14th century Nitra was several times plundered by various troops and the situation in the town only slowly was getting back to the track. As for the crafts, smiths, millers, butchers, weavers, furriers, shoemakers and tailors manufactured their goods there. Craftsmen had respect in the town and since the second half of the 14th century some of them had been appeared in the town council.

In the times of the Turk wars Nitra became antiturkish fortility and demand after products of local craftsmen increased remarkably, because of the presence of the soldier. An another important part of their goods was sold at weekly markets and four seasonal fairs. In this era craftsmen got started to join in the guilds.
Guild - associations of the craftsmen of one craft in one town. Their operation was run by articles which determined scope of production and trade as much as quality, quantity of products and education of apprentices. The guilds appeared in Europe at the beginning of the 14th century.
The first guild in Nitra was that of shoemakers, in 1583, and followed in
1585 - smiths, locksmiths and butchers
1593 - buttonmakers
1630 - furriers
Until the end of 17th century there were thirteen guilds in Nitra.

In the 18th century the following guilds worked in Nitra :
those connected to farming - millers, bakers, butchers
for household - stonemasons, smiths, locksmiths, jointers, pottery
for cloathing - weavers, blousemakers, tailors, furriers, buttonmakers, shoemakers, ropemakers, bootmakers and hatmakers.
The rest of the crafts (about 40 in Nitra), having just a few members, associated in joint guilds.
The crafts in the Middle Ages were surprisingly specialised and there were 150 - 220 crafts in existence. The master worked in his workshop with journymen and apprentices and sold their goods predominantly at the markets. Only a few of them a shop of their own possesed. The most profitable craft was butchery.
In the19th century the guilds fell into a deep crisis. Since the guilds fixed the costs and quantity of the products and disqualified any competition, they became the brake of the progress. In 1872 the guilds were abolished. The craftsmen established various manufacturing corporations to protect themselves against those not being corporated and craftsmen from countryside and at the same time took care of the sick, the old and the youth. Nitra Industrial Corporation was founded in 1885.
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