Ernest Hemingway: Biographie
Hemingway was an American novelist and short story writer whose works are drawn from his wide range of experiences in World War I, Civil War and World War II. Hemingway came to be regarded outside America as „typically American “He was born in Illinois, the son of a physician who took him as a boy, on fishing and hunting trips and so made him acquainted with some kind of virtues, such as endurance and courage, which were all to be reflected in his fiction. He was also a good athlete (boxing).
After working as a Kansas City reporter, he joined a volunteer ambulance unit in France (nurse, ambulance driver), was seriously wounded on the Italian front. In 1919 he returned to States and then went to Toronto to write for the Star. As its foreign correspondent in Paris (1921) he became an expatriate in expatriate community in Paris, known as "The Lost Generation," a name coined and popularized by Gertrude Stein. Leading a turbulent social life, Hemingway married four times, apart from various romantic relationships he formed during his lifetime, and received much media exposure. Hemingway received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1954, seven years before his death by suicide in 1961.SHORT STORIES MEN WITHOUT WOMEN- pre- and post-war feelingsTHE GREEN HILLS IN AFRICA- hunting adventuresDEATH IN THE AFTERNOON- bullfightingIN OUR TIMES - about Michigan NOVELSTHE SUN ALSO RAISES- group of expatriates in England after the war, totally morally destroyed.
They were drinking, sleeping, and planning trips. He described the emptiness of lives of these people and atmosphere after the war. A FAREWELL TO ARMS (1929)FOR WHOM THE BELLS TOLLS- from the poem of John DonneACROSS THE RIVER AND TNTO THE TREES- tone rather pessimisticTHE OLD MAN AND THE SEA- Pulitzer and Nobel price; fight with lack of creativity, picture of his depressionHe was influenced by colloquial language of Mark Twain. Among his contemporaries belonged Sherwood Anderson, Stephan Crane, Gertrude Stein who called their generation as Lost Generation; she heard it somewhere and started to us it as literally label. Europe was morally and physically destroyed, for America is was period of roaring twenties.
Many authors who participated in war left for Paris or Greenwich village (New York), they lost faith in God, attachment to any region, did not belong anywhere. All horrors and evils of the war helped shape his imagination and sensitivity. Death became in his fiction the extreme limit of experience and the final test of the genuine ordeal. His characters go down to defeat, sooner or later.Hemingway is remembered today for his style and the influence, also for a way of looking at things, violence, nature, death, and for his code of bravery, honor and individual dignity.