His own name is Eric Arthur Blair. He was born in 1903 in India. At that time India was a part of the British Empire, and Blair’s father held a post as an agent in Indian Civil Service. Eric’s mother was about eighteen years younger than her husband. Eric had an elder sister. The Blairs led a relitevely priviliged and fairly pleasant life, helping to administer the Empire. In 1907 when Eric was about eight years old, the family returned to England and lived at Henley. Blairs sent their son to a private preparatory school in Sussex at the age of eight. At the age of thirteen he won a scholarship to Wellington and soon after, another to Eton. At Eton he apprenticed himself to the masters of English prose who most appealed to him- including Swift, Sterne and Jack London. While the carreers of his school-fellows led to either Oxford or Cambridge, Eric Blair joined the Indian Imperial Police in 1922.
He trained in Burma, and served there in the police force for five years. In 1927 he resigned, because he felt that he was supportin a political system in which he could no longer believe, Even as early as this, his ideas about writing and his political ideas were closely linked. He settled in London and there at the age of twenty-four, he started to teach himself how to write. In 1928 he took a drastic step and he lived among the poor, first in London, then in Paris. For him the poor were victims of injustice. In Paris he lived and worked in a working-class quarter and he got to know there with many artists and would-be artists. When he returned to London, he lived for a couple of months among the tramps and poor people. His experiences gave birth to Down and Out in Paris and London entitled A Scullion’s Diary. After two rejections from publishers Orwell wrote Burmese Days. Soon it was accepted, but Eric Blair insisted on publishing it pseudonymously. By taking the pseudonym George Orwell he shedded his old identity and took on a new. Eric Blair, old Etonain and English colonial policeman changed into George Orwell, classless anti-authoritarian. His next book was A Clergyman’s Daughter and Keep The Aspidistra Flying. In 1936 he opened a village shop in Wallington, where he did business in the mornings and wrote in the afternoons.
The same year he married Eileen O’Shaughnessy and received a commission from the Left Book Club to examine the conditions of the poor and unemployed. This resulted into The Road to Wigan Pier. He went on living among the poor about whom he was to write his book. Once again it was a journey of comparative comfort of middle-class life. The Left Book Club was not pleased with the book due to the often criticizm of the English class system and English socialism. Having completed The Road to Wigan Pier he went to Spain at the end of 1936 with the idea of writing newspaper articles of the Civil War. After receiving a basic military training he was sent to the front, where he spent a couple of months and was wounded in the throat. When he returned to Barcelona, he found a completely changed city and his group was accused of being a Fascist militia. He and his wife escaped to France, but he still believed that socialism in action was a human possibility. His account of his time in Spain was published in Homage to Catalonia. In 1938, Orwell became ill with tuberculosis and spent the winter in Morocco.
While being there, he wrote a novel Coming up for Air. In 1939 the Second World War broke out and Orwell wanted to fight, as he had done in Spain, against the fascist enemy, but he was declared physically unfit. During the wor he worked for BBc, served in the Home Guard and in 1943 he became literary editor and began writing Animal Farm. In 1944 the Orwells adopted a son, ut in 1945 his wife died during an operation. Towards the end of the war, he went to Europe as a reporter. In 1945 he went to Scotland and he wrote Nineteen Eighty-Four there. Later he married Sonja Brownell. He died in January 1950.Animal farmMain characters:Napoleon – young boar, which turned out Snowman and than he became a leader of animalSnowman – young boar, which was turned out of Animal farmKviciak – pig, which was very good speaker. He was Napoleons spokesmanBoxer – very strong but stupid draught horseClover – draught mareMr. Jones – a owner of animal farm. He and his wife was turned out of farm. He wants farm back, but he lost it.
After time he dies.Mr. Pilkington – a owner of neighbouring farm called Foxs forest.Mr. Frederick – a owner of neighobouring farm called Majer.Mr. Whymper – a legal adviser of NapoleonBenjamin – old and bad-tempered donkeyMuriela – white gooseMolly – white mare, which is very affectedMajor – very old boar, which die in the beginningThe story starts on a congress which takes place in a barn. Major, an old boar speaks other animals about people. He wants get rid Mr. Jones and than all people, because they only exploit animal. Three day after this congress Major died. Animals create rules which called animalizm. One day when starved animals didn’t get a meal, came the rebellion. Jones and his people were turned out of the farm. Animals started call this farm the Animal farm, because there were no people. Pigs start learning read and write. Animals worked and learn write and read. But after time Jones want back his farm and he and his people attacked on the Animal farm. This battle called The battle by a cowshed won animals. Between Napoleon and Snowman which managed the farm were many quarrels. Snowman proposed a building of mill but Napoleon didn’t want it. The Animal farm divided into two parts.
All on Animal farm started to manage Napoleon. Snowman was turned out of farm. Animals started to build the mill according to Napoleon. But they lacked material and therefore Napoleon started to do business. Every Monday attended farm a mediator Whymper. Pigs moved into house of Mr. Jones and they started to have many privileges. One day was on farm big storm and the mill crashed. Snowman was accused of it and Napoleon wants to execute Snowman. Animals started to build the mill again. After time came winter. Animals had bad conditions and they were tormented by hunger. Napoleon wanted to take chickens eggs. On farm was indication of rebellion of animals. Snowman was accused of all bad what happened on the Animal farm. All animals which had something with Snowmen were killed. Pigs distorted the fact and stupid animals believed them. All after time changed. Napoleon had friendly relations with two neighbouring farms. But Mr. Federick attacked on the Animal farm. Started battle on the Animal farm. Animals won and they had big celebration.
But after few days Boxer died. And after time died Muriela, old dogs and Mr. Jones. On farm came new animals which were stupid and which didn’t know about history of the Animal farm. Pigs learnt walk on back legs and they behave as people.
Quotations:A nezabúdajme, že v zápase s človekom nesmie prevziať jeho spôsoby. Aj keď si ho podmaníme, nesmieme prijať jeho zvyky. Nijaké zviera nikdy nesmie bývať v dome alebo spať v posteli, obliekať sa, požívať alkohol, fajčiť, dotýkať sa peňazí alebo zaoberať sa obchodom. Všetky ľudské zvyky sú zlo. A čo je najdôležitejšie, nijaké zviera nesmie nikdy tyranizovať príslušníka svojej rasy. Slabí či silní, múdri či hlúpi, všetci sme si bratia. Nijaké zviera nikdy nesmie zabiť iné zviera. (Major)Sú to celkom pohodlné postele! Ale jedno vám môžem povedať, druhovia, zďaleka nie také pohodlné, ako by sme potrebovali, pri všetkej tej duševnej námahe, ktorú musíme v týchto dňoch vykonávať. Hádam by ste nás nechceli obrať o odpočinok, druhovia?! Hádam by ste nechceli, aby sme sa vyčerpali natoľko, aby sme nezvládli naše povinnosti?! Alebo chcete niekto z vás , aby sa vrátil Jones?!(Kvičiak)Potom sa ani nezdalo čudné, keď na druhý deň prasatá, ktoré dohliadali na prácu na farme, držali v paprčiach biče. Už sa nikto nepozastavoval nad tým, že sa Napoleon prechádza po dvore s fajkou v ústach – nie, ani keď prasatá povyťahovali zo skríň šaty a obliekali si ich. Dvanásť hlasov burácalo hnevom – jeden ako druhý. Teraz už bolo jasné, čo sa to dialo s tvárami prasiat. Zvieratá vonku hľadeli z prasaťa na človeka, z človeka na prasa a opäť z prasaťa na človeka, nedalo sa však rozoznať, kto je kto.
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George Orwell: Animal Farm
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