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Nedeľa, 29. januára 2023
Dátum pridania: 19.10.2007 Oznámkuj: 12345
Autor referátu: lfillip
Jazyk: Angličtina Počet slov: 1 971
Referát vhodný pre: Gymnázium Počet A4: 6.2
Priemerná známka: 2.98 Rýchle čítanie: 10m 20s
Pomalé čítanie: 15m 30s
Athens was a city of craftmen:

Pottery was a particulary important trade.The clay of Attika turns an orange red colour when baked.This is called terracotta.The
Greeks liked to have pots of different shapes and sizes each for a particular purpose.A pot for wine,water....



Draco wrote the first Greek laws in 621 BC. These laws were too harsh. Death penalty common for even small offenses, "Draconian." But, at least they were written down so the people knew what to expect, and justice was not as arbitrary.


In 594 BC aristocrats asked Solon to write a "constitution," a set of written laws. Athens was divided into four classes, based on wealth. It decreased the power of the nobles and increased the power of the merchants, because the people in the highest three classes could hold office. Solon encouraged farmers to grow new crops: olives for oil, and grapes for wine, therefore increasing trade. All citizens had to teach their sons a trade. Citizenship was given to artisans from other cities. Athens became prosperous.


Peisistratus gained control in 546 BC. He was a "good tyrant" because he did improved conditions. He broke up large estates and gave land to the poor, and there were a lot of internal improvements.


Cleisthenes came to power 510 BC. Athens was divided into ten areas called demes (deemz). Fifty men from each were selected to make decisions. All males over 20 could vote in the assembly. Leaders were chosen by lot (names drawn from a pot). People could point out anyone that they thought was a threat - If 6,000 votes were cast against someone, they were "ostrakon"
(ostracized). Athens was now a democratic city-state.

Delian league vs.Peloponnesian league:

Delian league was an alliance of Greek cities.This league was kept on the Island Delos and was set up by Athnes.The league included the Islands of Aegean Sea and most of the coastal cities around it and they had to pay if they wanted to be in this
league.Sparta however kept part.But worried by the growing power of Athens it formed it´s own Peloponnesian League which dominated the Greek mainland.Realising this problem Athenians took precautions.Piraeus the port of Athens is about 6
kilometers from the city so defensive lobg walls were built btw.the two.


In this time the most famous Athenian was leader Pericles a rich well-educated man who was also a fine public speaker.Pericles was ready for war if necessary but he hoped for peace so that he could make Athens the most beautiful city in the world.Pericles helped to organise the rebuilding work together with Ictinus and Callicrates-two architects.On the Acropolis the Partheon a temple to Athena was erected.The Partheon was surronded by other beautiful buildings including a small blue and white temple called

The fall of Athens:

The peloponnesian war btw.Sparta and Athens lasted for 27 years.It divided the Greek btw.two sides because cities had to took part in on side.Pericles was sure that if Athens avoided a battle on land with Spartans and kept control of the sea they would win.Athens was well defended by its long walls down to the port of Piraeus.It was richer than Sparta and so could hold out longer.But Athens had a weakness.It depended on corn supplies from Russia.Should this life-line cut its citizens would starve.Every assembly met during the war was about this vital problem.Early in the war a plague broke out in Athens and Pericles
was one of the many who died from it.The Athenian leader after Pericles did not follow his advice.They fought battles on land in which they were defeated.In the 405 BC the Spartan admiral Lysander smashed the Athenian fleet in a battle in the Hellespont and so cut the city´s corn supply.Spartan troops occupied the city ,destroyed the long walls ,were killing all men and selling the women and children as slaves and reduced the once mighty Athenian navy to twelve ships.For a time the Athenian were ruled by
a Spartan-controlled goverment called The Thirty.But in the following year a more democractic rule returned to Athens.Although Athens never again became as great as befor the war it remained one of the most important cities of Greece.The long wall were rebuilt and trade was brought back to Athens.
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Athens GYM 2.9890 352 slov
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