The Great Wall of China or The long wall if you want, is an old system of fortification. It is the most important architectural monument and the most characteristic symbol of China. Its main task was to protect China before invasions of Mongols and before raids of nomadic tribes, which were stealing food and building materials. The wall was one of the most important business journeys between east and west. People gave him attribute “The longest cemetery in the world”, because there died above one million people at work. On it was working forced workers, soldiers, convicts and man haled off from yours families. They were building it in hard terrain and extreme climatic conditions.
The wall has name “Ten thousand long wall” too. That is Chinese synonym for measureless quantity. It is above 6300 till 6700 Km long. It starts on the east beginning in Shanhai Pass and it finishes on west end of desert Gobi in Tia-ju-kuan. In some parts is disconnected, because the last Cching dynasty stopped reconstruction of the wall.
The first wall was building in Cchin dynasty (770-480 BC), when there were several smaller states. It’s length was about 500-600 Km then. In 214 BC another states added 700 Km of the wall. Even though Nation of Siung invaded in territory of state Cchung Shau. These events led to it, that in 221 BC Jung Ccheng (later Cchin S-Chuang-ti) captured 6 states, which were building the wall and he announced their in emperor. This was the base of the first states of China. He began to systematically connect the small defensive walls and he was building the big wall with watchtowers.
But between years 1211-1234 AD the Mongols invaded in China, subdued Ťin Empire and The Great Wall of China began disintegrate. After the end of domination of Mongols began the Ming dynasty (1368-1644), which was restoring the wall and gave it today’s form. Today is accessed about 300 km. Parts, which aren’t accessed for visitors, are now in bad status. They are tumble-down and breaking. Poor inhabitants near the wall often disassemble it on building materials.
Construction and outfit
To build this “Big Dragon” isn’t easy. Core of the wall is from big wood cases. In the case is building material according, where the wall was built. In mountains, where was a lot of wood and stone, they were not afraid of for supplies of building materials. On the west part of the wall, especially in the desert Gobi, in the wood case they were putting sand with bundles of desert grass and plants. Sometimes they were using iron too. Then they were reveting the case with stone blocks.
The wall is reaching 6-10 m height and 3-6 m width. It had 14 strategic gates, which had floors with cannons. They were situated near the trade and camping centres. Every 180 metres is prismatic tower, which is 11-12 metres tall. She was serving as hiding for soldiers before bad weather, enemies and as store for weapons and food.
Every 15 kilometres was built signal plain for foundation signal fires, which were warning before enemy. During 24 hours they were able to announce enemy attack from one terminal of wall on second.
By reason of hard entry for supplies, they were creating fields of cereals along the wall. Later, workers were beginning to ground settlements there, which were serving as a militia. There they were taking to irrigation systems, which were providing water in hard terrains.
Since 1987 is the wall register in the List for World Heritage, UNESCO. But we must think, that the Great Wall of China is disintegrating and, if we don’t do something for its rescue, one of the greatest monuments of the world will become extinct before our eyes.
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Essay - The Great Wall of China
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