Health and diseases
Medical care of any type in our country is free of charge (bezplatný), althought there are now many private doctors. We do not pay for prescriptions (lékařský recept) or for some medicines. But for other medicines, especially for those from abroad, we must pay. For a long time the state has been looking after each of its (jeho) citizens (občan, občanka) – even (i, dokonce) before birth. Mothers get financial help and benefits (výhody) for three years after the birth of a child. Then comes medical and social care for these children.
The Health insurance system
Employers (zaměstnavatel) pay health insurance (zdravotní pojištění) for thein employees (zaměstnanec), but everybody can pay extra money for his health insurance. Private people must pay thein health insurance themselves (sobě).
If we fall ill (onemocnit) or if we have an akcident (nehoda, úraz), w ego to the Health centre, Policlinic, Hospitál or to some Private Doctors. There are various types of medical treatment (léčba) for our different types of problems. Doctor may (možná) ask you to strip to the waist (svléci se do pasu) before he examines (vyšetřit) your chest and throat (krk->zevnitř). They check (zkontrolují) our blood pressure (krevní tlak), feel the pulse or put our blood or urine (moč) through lab-tests. Sometimes they may X-ray (rentgen) our lunte (plíce) or bones (kosti). We must go throught many type sof vaccination (očkování) during our lives. Dentist may check our teeth and sometimes pull out (vytrhnout) one of them or drill (vrtat) and fill them (zaplombuje). Doctors usually prescribe some medicines to us – pills, antibiotics, gargling (kloktadlo), eye-drops, sleeping pills, ointment (mast) or they tell us,we have to go on a diet.
The are GP(general practitoners), dentists, surgeons (chirurg), interns, oculists (oční), pediatricians, gynaecologists, psychiatrists, dermatologists, ear and throath specialists, orthopaedic specialists. Each person undergo (podstoupit) a regular check-up (lékařská prohlídka) a least once a year.
Children diseases such as measles(spalničky), chickenpox(plané neštovice),mumps (příušnice), scarlet-fever(spála).
Infections diseases such as flu, angina, indigestion (porucha trávení,bolení žaludku) diarrhoea (průjem) or constipation (zácpa).Dangerous diseases such as tuberculosis, anaemia (chudokrevnost), pneumonia (zácpa plic), leukemia, diabetes, hepatitis (žloutenka), The doctors care must be very attentive (pozorný) because human life is in danger.
It is true that prevetion is better than cure (léčba). The bes way to cue yourself of disease is not to catch it. We should try to live a healthy way of life, which means (znamenat) we should have a good proportion of work to leisure time, between our slep and up time, to keep our mental state in order. We should practise sports, at lest swim or go for walks, we should eat healthy food with lot sof vitamins, we should not smoke, drink much alcohol, become drug addicts or change our intimate friend often too.
I think health is the most important thing in life. Without health you can't enjoy your life..
In the past millions of childrens died of children disease. Such as diphtheria, scarlet fever and polio. Some other disease were very dangerous. They were: children-pox (small-pox), measles, German measles and mumps. Today are vaccinated against them.
German measles are very dangerous to girls and women. If they become ill with that disease, they may not have a baby.
Common Disease (illnesses)
Sometimes you get ill but the illness isn't dangerous, so you don't go to the doctor's. You stay at home and in a day or a few days you are well again. Such illnesses may be: a cold, a stomachache and a headache.
But when you have flu or a sore throat you should see the doctor.
At The Doctor
I enter the surgery. The doctor ussually asks me, "What's the metter with you?" .I answer, "Oh, doctor, I feel so sick. I have a cold, I have a bad cough." Then the doctor says, "Let my examine you. Get undressed to the waist." He takes his stethoscope and listens to my lungs and hearth. He says, "Fortunately(naštěstí) it isn't pneumonia(zápal plic). It is only bronchitis(zjánět průdušek)." He asks the nurse to take my temperature. The nurse puts a thermometer in my mounth. After a minute the nurse says that I have a temperature. Then the doctor says, "Now I'll write you out a prescription. I'll prescribe you antibiotics. You must take them twice a day each twelf hours after meal. You must stay in bad, drink hot tea with lemon and eat a lot of fruit."
Sometimes when we fall down or fall off tree, or fall off a bike we make injure ourselves. Sometimes it's only a bruise(pohmoždění). Othertime it may be something more serious. Your ankle hurts it's swollen(oteklý). You put a splint(dláha) on your foot and then you must go for an X-ray. The X-ray will show if your ankle is sprained (put out) (vymknutý) or broken. If it's sprained you put ice bags on it and in a few days you will be able(schopný) to walk. If it's broken, your foot is put in plaster. After some weeks plaster is removed. Sometimes you have to go to physiotherapy.Very Dangerous Diseases
Some disease are still incurable(nevyléčitelný). First of all it's AIDS. Some kinds of cancor(rakovina) are incurable too. If cancer is found out early enough and radiotheraphy and chemotheraphy are applied, cancer may be stopped. The third very dangerous disease is stroke(mrtvice). Many people die after stroke, many people are paralysed - many of them are confined (omezený) to a weelchair. Eighty years ago tuberculosis (TBC) was an incurable disease too. Million of peoples died of TBC. But after Fleming had discovered penicilin, TBC became curable.
Health is influenced by the way of life. If we want to be well, if we want to be fit we must have a regular daily routine. It means we have to get up at the same time, we have to go to bed at the fixed time.We would better walk to school not go by bus, or by car. We would better not take the lift, but walk up the stairs an down the stairs.
One of the most effective ways of keeping fit is do some sport.For example swimming, jogging or ride a bicykl.
Food And Health
Food and health are connected. Our food must contain: proteins, carbohydrates, fat, vitamins, roughage(vláknina) and minerals.
PROTEINS - they can be found in meat, in eggs, cheese, youghurt and other dairy products. White meat is better then red meat (beef, pork)
CARBOHYDRATES - they can be found in bread, pasta, pastry, cakes and chocolades
FAT - it can be found in bacon
VITAMINS - they can be found in fruit and vegetables
ROUGHAGE - can be found in cereals and poridge.
MINERALS - can be found in mineral water, in vegetables, for example beans contain a lot of calcium, which is very important for our bones and teeth, or spinch is full of iron.
Some people overeat and they are overweight or obeze. A lot of people eat fast fodd. Theese are hamburgers, cheesburgers, hot dogs, pizza, and fish and chips. But many people buy foods only in health shops. It's good to eat five times a day: have a breakfast, have a snack, have lunch, have tea and have dinner. A Slovak proverb says: Have a breakfast like a king, have a lunch like a citizen and have dinner like a pauper(žebrák).
First Aid Kit (lékárnička)
This is a box or a little case with things necessary(nezbytné) for helping in an emergency(záchrana, stav nouze). There should be bandages, scissors(nůžky), waterproof plasters, safety pins(sponky), tape(náplast), antiseptic powder, and tweezers(pinzeta,kleštičky).
Parts of human body
Head: face, hair, eyes, eyebrows(obočí), eyelashes (řasy) ears, cheeks(tváře), chin(brada), mouth, lips, jaw(čelist), teeth, tongue(jazyk), neck, forehead(čelo), temples, nose,
Trunk(trup): back, chest(hrudník), tummy(břicho),whist(pas), hips(boky), ), buttocks(hýždě),
upper limb- arm, shoulder(rameno), armpit (podpaždí), elbow(loket), forearm(předloktí), wrist(zápěstí), hand, fingers (thumb, index finger,middle finger, ring finger, little finger), nail
ower limb- leg, thigh(stehno), knee, calf(lýtko), shin(holeň), foot(chodidlo),sole(chodidlo), instep(nárt), ankl (kotník), heel(pata), toes (prsty na noze)
Skeleton: skull(lebka). backbone(páteř), bones(kosti), join (kloub),rib (žebro)
Internal organs: heart, lunte(plíce), stokách(žaludek), large intestine(tlusté střevo), small intestine(tenké střevo), appendix, liver(játra), gall bladde (žlučník), kidneys(ledviny), bladder(močový měchýř), spleen(slezina).