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Štvrtok, 9. decembra 2021
Japan
Dátum pridania: 01.10.2007 Oznámkuj: 12345
Autor referátu: bran000
 
Jazyk: Angličtina Počet slov: 2 546
Referát vhodný pre: Gymnázium Počet A4: 8.4
Priemerná známka: 2.97 Rýchle čítanie: 14m 0s
Pomalé čítanie: 21m 0s
 

Geography

Japan is an island country in the North Pacific Ocean. Four large islands and thousands of smaller ones make up Japan. The four major islands – Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, and Shikoku – has about 1, 200 miles about 125 million people are crowded on these islands making Japan one of the most populated countries in the world. The capital city is Tokyo.
Japan with area about 145,870 sq.mi (377,801 km2) has the highest mount Fuji 12,388 ft. (3,776 m) above see level, which has last erupted in 1707.
The Japanese call their country Nippon or Nihon, which means source of the sun. The name may have come from Zipangu, the Italian name given to the country by Marco Polo, a Venetian traveler of the late 1200´s. Polo had heard of the Japanese islands while traveling through China. Mountains and hills cover most of Japan, making it a country of great beauty. But the mountains and hills take up so much land and great majority of the people live on narrow plains along the coasts.
Japan is situated within one of the Earth's most geologically active zones. The country thus experiences violent volcanic eruptions--at least 60 volcanoes have been active within historic times. Tsunamis (huge sea waves) often accompany offshore tremors and may cause severe damage along the Pacific coast.
Japan's five largest river basins are the Tone on Honshu; the Ishikari on Hokkaido; and the Kitakami, the Shinano, and the Kiso also on Honshu. Lake Biwa in central Honshu is Japan's largest lake; all other major lakes are in the northeast. .
Japan's temperatures are generally mild because of the warming effects of the Kuroshio (Japan Current) and the Tsushima Current. Winter and summer temperatures vary widely from north to south.

Government

Japans present constitution was drawn up by the Allied occupation forces and went into effect on May 3, 1947. 1
Now it’s considered to be the democratic constitution, which guarantees the people many human liberties, such as freedom of speech, of religion, of the press...
Nowadays all Japanese citizens 20 years may vote (1947- Constitution guaranteed women the right vote)
The politics here is similar to the other democratic countries - there are several parties. The most successful, conservative party (since 1955 has the most seats in the diet) is Democratic Party, which represents rural areas. The chief opposition parts is the Japan Socialist Party.
The other: Komeito (clean government party), the Democratic Socialist Party, Japan Communist Party...

Economy

The Japan economy is tightly joined with the arrival of the firs Europeans during the mid – 1500´s. Japan’s isolation lasted until 1853, when Commodore Matthew C. Perry of the USA sailed his warships into Tokyo Bay. As a result of Perry’s show off force, Japan agreed in 1854 to open two ports to U.S. trade.2
It s one of the world s giant s - since the WW2.The countries factories have some of the most advanced equipment in the world.
Japan is one of the world s leading trading nations, as measured by exports - its imports and exports was about 525$ in 1999.
Japan export a lot of goods like for example passenger car, steel, electronic equipment. However is Japan export higher than import, Japan has to import many of the raw materials. It import petroleum (35% of the total value of imports) Japan also imports coal, chemicals, iron, meat, natural gas...
Japans main trading partner is USA (Japan is second to Canada as the principal trading partner of USA). Japans other leading trading partners include: Australia, Canada, China, Germany, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Singapore, South Korea, United Arab Emirates...
Japan has the world second largest economy in terms of it s gross domestic product (GDP)-first is USA.3
28% of Japan gross makes manufacturing. It has height quality and standards and first of all, what s really important in the world markets it has competitive prices. Japanese products are in great demand on the world market.
Japan s economy belongs to the top not only because of prices. It s also the world s leading shipbuilding country, produce about 6 million cars each year, produce heavy electrical and no electrical machines and equipment...
Money & Costs
Currency: Yen (¥)
Exchange rate: US$1 = ¥138
Relative costs:
1. Budget meal: US$5-8
2. Restaurant meal: US$12-70
3. Budget room: US$18-25
4. Mid-range hotel: US$35-45
Japan is probably the most expensive country in the world to travel, but there are ways of keeping the outlays to an almost bearable level. A skeleton daily budget, assuming you stay in the cheapest hostels, eat modestly and travel short distances, would work out to US$50.
Cash is still king in Japan, although the use of credit cards is pretty widespread in major cities. The Japanese are used to a very low crime rate and often carry wads of cash for the almost sacred ritual of cash payment. 4 Foreign travellers can safely copy the cash habit, but should still take the usual precautions.
 
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