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Sobota, 13. apríla 2024
Dátum pridania: 10.05.2007 Oznámkuj: 12345
Autor referátu: pitipa
Jazyk: Angličtina Počet slov: 833
Referát vhodný pre: Gymnázium Počet A4: 2.6
Priemerná známka: 2.98 Rýchle čítanie: 4m 20s
Pomalé čítanie: 6m 30s
Every day millions of people travel from one place to another. They travel for fun or from necessity – to work, to school or on business. People and goods can be transported by land, by water or by air.

Land offers the greatest variety of means of transport. There are motor road vehicles on the one hand and rail on the another. As personal vehicles, cars, motorcycles and bicycles are the most popular. We can also travel by coaches, buses and trolley buses. Of rail vehicles, we could mention trains, trams and the underground.
Many people of all countries of the world like traveling by bike. Some go to school or work by bike; others prefer cycling as a sport and hobby. In recent yeas many young people go for holiday trips by bike, which is very exciting.

Many people consider car the best mean of traveling. It is fast enough for short and middle distances, it has a quite large space for luggage in the trunk and is highly comfortable. But a car is expensive to purchase and in addition one also has to pay for petrol. Cars are not very safe and contribute much to air pollution. In spite of that, the number of cars on our roads and highways grows higher and higher every year. It is similar to other countries in the world. In USA there are more cars per person than anywhere else. Many adults, but also high school and college students drive their own cars. The speed controls and strict alcohol tests considerably reduced traffic deaths. Also pollution regulations were passed to protect the environment endangered by the growing number of cars.

The most frequent public means of transport are buses and trains:

Coaches are buses for long distance traveling. They are fast, comfortable and the prices of tickets are quite reasonable.

Traveling by train is a very common form of traveling. They are cheap, less polluting and safe, but not very clean and comfortable. This refers especially to slow trains, stopping at every station. It can also be an advantage, as the passengers can enjoy the landscape. Fast trains and through trains are more comfortable and do not stop at every station. There is also a sleeping car and a dining car, which make the traveling even more pleasant. Our railway is one of the most neglected and old-fashioned ones in all Europe, therefore it urgently needs reorganization and modernization. Between Great Britain and France, the Channel Tunnel has been built and so extends the British railway system to the continental one.

In big cities, underground (subways) with several tracks have been built (in order to relieve the street cars and buses). They are the fastest and most frequented means of urban transportation.

Rivers, seas and oceans are continuously being filled with new cargo and passenger vessels. Ferries, ocean liners and other steamboats carry you to the place of destination with small costs, but take quite a long period of time. The advantage is also that one can take almost as much luggage as one likes. But in general not many people have the courage to board a ship because they can become sea-sick.

Unlike sea travel, going by air consumes huge sums of money but is the fastest way of traveling. During the last few decades the number of airplanes and frequency of flights have grown enormously. In such countries as the USA, where people have to travel long distances, traveling by air has become quite common. There are several hundred American airlines. All of them are private and include the biggest and most popular Pan American or Delta Airlines.

Traveling by a plane, it is usual to arrive at the airport at least two hours prior one’s departure. At the airport we have our luggage, which has a limited weight, checked, go through a security check and the passport control and then wait until the plane is ready to take off. Then the passengers board the plane. Sometimes a shuttle has to bring them to their airplane. Inside it the stewardess shows them their seats. Everybody fastens their safety belts, the aircrew makes last checks on the runway and after getting permission from the control tower for the flight the aircraft takes off. During the flight the stewardess offers meals, refreshments, drinks and sweets. The passengers can also read magazines supplied on board, listen to music, watch television or just sleep. From time to time they can hear information about the altitude, speed and approximate location of the plane. Near the airport the plane descends and finally lands on the ground. The passengers disembark and wait for their luggage. After showing their passports and visas to the immigration officer and going through the customs check they are free to enjoy the country where they have landed.

Air travel has changed dramatically since the attacks on 9/11/2001. There are many more security screenings, check points and luggage searches, which require a lot of patience for passengers.
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