referaty.sk – Všetko čo študent potrebuje
Bohuslav
Streda, 17. júla 2019
The human body
Dátum pridania: 16.05.2007 Oznámkuj: 12345
Autor referátu: sandraa
 
Jazyk: Angličtina Počet slov: 1 112
Referát vhodný pre: Gymnázium Počet A4: 3.5
Priemerná známka: 3.00 Rýchle čítanie: 5m 50s
Pomalé čítanie: 8m 45s
 
The human body is composed of bones and muscles which are covered with a tender skin. The body is divided into three parts: the head, the trunk and the limbs.

The head comprises of the face and the skull. In the skull is hidden our brain and on the top hair grow. People have different colours of hair (blond, ginger, brown or black) and also various type of hair (straight, curly or wavy). The face composes of the forehead, temples, eyes, ears, cheeks, nose, chin, jaw and mouth with lips. The eye is an organ of the sight. Each eye is situated in the eyeball, has two eyelids (upper and lower) provided with eyelashes. Above the eye is the eyebrow. In the mouth are teeth, the tongue and soft and hard palate. We hear with our ears and smell with our nose. The men have a moustache and beard which some of them shave it.

The head is connected with the trunk by neck. The neck allows us to move with our head right and left, down and up.

The parts of the trunk are the shoulders, back, chest, belly, abdomen (stomach), bottom and female’s and male’s sex organs (the penis and vagina). On the chest we have the breasts with nipples and on the belly is a belly-bottom. In the middle of the trunk is a waist and lower are flanks, hips and groins. Inside our body is the heart, lungs, liver with bile, stomach, intestines (bowels – small and large intestine), appendix, pancreas, spleen and kidneys.

By the limbs we mean arms and legs. The arms are attached to the trunk by the shoulders. The arm consists of the upper arm, crook of the arm, elbow, forearm, wrist and hand. The inner side of the hand is called a palm. On each hand we have five fingers – the forefinger (index), middle finger, ring finger, little finger and thumb. The end of the finger is called a fingertip and on the opposite side is a fingernail. The leg composes of the thigh, knee, calf and foot. The parts of the foot are heel, instep, sole of the foot and five toes – big toe, second toe, third toe, fourth toe and little toe which end with a toenail. The join directly above the foot is called an ankle. So this is the composition of the body.

Illnesses

The human body is permanently being attacked by many different kinds of bacteria, micro-organisms, and viruses. Many types of diseas exist and one of them the civilization diseases are. They are sicknesses which majority of human population suffer from and they are hardly cured and often they aren´t healed at all and some of them can be mortal.

AIDS - Acquired immune deficiency syndrome

AIDS is caused by the HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus). AIDS is the final and most serious stage of HIV disease . It is characterised by signs and symptoms of severe immune deficiency. AIDS has proved to be a universally fatal illness. Few patients survive 5 years following diagnosis. The average time from diagnosis of AIDS to death is 18 to 24 months although this is increasing with improvements in treatment techniques. Prevention of AIDS requires self-discipline and strength of character. The requirements often seem personally restrictive but they are effective and can save lives.

Cancer

Cancer is a tumour diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and their ability to spread, coupled with damageing of adjacent tissue, or by creating metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). Cancer may affect people at all ages, but risk tends to increase with age. It is one of the principal causes of death in developed countries.

Alcoholism

Alcoholism is a depend on alcool, which is characterised by strong lack to drink it. It is physical depence that causes defecton of self-control.Alcoholism is menaced ilnesses that often finishes of death after disease of organs like liver, kidneys or understomach gland. Alcoholism is also main factor contributes to carriage accidents, violence and assault and is also cause of face-ached and others medecine problems for example scirrhosity of liver.

Allergy

Allergy is a local or systemic inflammatory response to allergens. It is a hypersensitivity to normally innocuous entities such as dust, pollen, or certain foods, medecines, bristle, bloom, coat(stream), moulds, insects and so on. Nowadays, alergies are spread all over the world. Almost half of humankind suffer from it. The best cause of cure is to avoid allergens which are dangerous or harmful for us.

ILNESSES OF PARTS OF BODY

Liver - scirrhosity of liver. Liver is a gland of vertebrate, so of human too. is the largest gland in the human body. It plays a major role in metabolism and has a number of functions in the body. It belongs to digestion system. It is cache of glycogen, insures detoxication of organism and creation of bile. Many diseases of the liver exist. For example- Hepatitis, inflammation of the liver, caused mainly by various viruses but also by some poisons, autoimmunity or hereditary conditions. Cirrhosis is the formation of fibrous tissue in the liver, replacing dead liver cells. The death of the liver cells can for example be caused by viral hepatitis, alcoholism or contact with other liver-toxic chemicals. Hemochromatosis, a hereditary disease causing the accumulation of iron in the body, eventually leading to liver damage.

Heart - is a pear shaped cavity muscular organ in vertebrates, responsible for pumping blood trough the blood vessels by repeated, rhythmic contractions. The most common heart diseases: Ischaemic heart disease, another disease of the heart itself, characterized by reduced blood supply(zasoba) to the organ. Hereditary heart disease, heart disease caused by unavoidable genetic factors since birth. Valvular heart disease, heart disease that affects the valves of the heart. Hypertensive heart disease, heart disease caused by high blood pressure.

Back - The human back is the large posterior area of the human body, rising from the top of the buttocks to the back of the neck and the shoulders. The spinal canal runs through the spine and provides nerves to the rest of the body. The back comprises interconnecting nerves, bones, muscles, ligaments and tendons, all of which can be a source of pain. Back pain is one of the most common types of pain in adults. By far the most common cause of back pain is muscle strain. The back muscles can usually heal themselves within a couple of weeks, but the pain can be intense and debilitating. Other common sources of back pain include disc problems, such as degenerative disc disease or a lumbar disc herniation, many types of fractures, such as spondylolisthesis or an osteoporotic fracture, or osteoarthritis.
 
Podobné referáty
The human body SOŠ 2.9768 420 slov
Copyright © 1999-2019 News and Media Holding, a.s.
Všetky práva vyhradené. Publikovanie alebo šírenie obsahu je zakázané bez predchádzajúceho súhlasu.