Preflight preparation is the foundation of safe flying. But it is too one of the most often neglected acts of a pilot contemplating flight in an aircraft. Accident statistics recent years indicate that adequate preflight preparation is lacking in many cases. As a result, while the number of general aviation accidents and approach and landing accidents has declined, takeoff accidents have increased.
Statistics indicate that takeoff accidents occur because elements of the preflight preparation were:
•not assigned the proper importance,
•not incorporated into the preflight routine,
•pilots did not anticipate potential takeoff emergencies.
Recommendations to enhance the safety of flying are:
•create good preflight planning habits and review them continually,
•know all of the hazards and conditions which would represent potential dangers, especially during takeoff,
•be aware of the capabilities and limitations of their aircraft.
While preflight preparations are being made, the glider must be parked safely in a location that does not obstruct the launch area. Preflight preparation has to include checking all systems on the airplane, such as:
1.Flight controls : ailerons, elevator(s), rudder(s), control tabs, stabilizer, flaps, spoilers, leading edge flaps/slats, and trim systems.
2.Landing gear : indicators, brakes, antiskid, tires, nosewheel steering, and shock absorbers.
3.Powerplant : controls and indicators, induction system, carburetor and fuel injection, cooling, fire detection and protection, turbine wheels, compressors, deicing, anti-icing, and other related components.
4.Propellers : type, controls, feathering/unfeathering, autofeather, negative torque sensing, synchronizing.
5.Fuel system : capacity, drains, pumps, controls, indicators, transferring, jettison, fuel grade, color and additives, fueling and defueling procedures.
6.Oil system : capacity, grade, quantities, and indicators.
7.Hydraulic system : capacity, pumps, pressure, reservoirs, grade, and regulators.
8.Electrical system : alternators, generators, battery, circuit breakers and protection devices, controls, indicators, external and auxiliary power sources, and priority of electrical power distribution and ratings.
9.Environmental systems : heating, cooling, ventilation, oxygen and pressurization, controls, indicators, and regulating devices.
10.Pneumatic systems : pressures and servicing tires,condition, inflation, and correct mounting, where applicable
11.Avionics and communications : autopilot, flight director, electronic flight indicating systems, flight management system, long range navigation systems, doppler radar, inertial navigation systems and components, indicating devices, transponder, and emergency locator transmitter.
12.Crewmember and passenger equipment—oxygen system(s), survival and emergency equipment and exits, smoke and fire fighting equipment, evacuation procedures and crew duties, and quick donning oxygen mask for crewmembers and passengers.Flight cannot begin, till wasn't detect all the due resources, that they were completes all following conditions:
1. Adequate machinery, which are needs for flying and for safe running include aircraft communication system and navigation instrument, are available to realisation flight.
2. Aircrew must be apprise of place and using relevant emergency system
and passengers must be knowing about it. For aircrew and passengers must be available
full incident informations about emergency practice and usage safety cabin system.
3. Captain of aircraft must be sure, that:
a)aircraft is able to flying;
b)instruments and machineries, which are needs to realisation this flight, are install in aircraft and they are function;
c)mass & balance must are realize in limits
Too many accidents happen because the aircraft is not loaded within the limits of mass & balance. For some reason, a number of pilots never makes a mass & balance calculation, often because they think it's too complicated or it takes too much time. This attitude not only jeopardizes their life but also the life of their passengers and of people on the ground.
4. Aircrew must have informations about meteorological conditions for flight away airport , target airport, and eventually for alternate airport, and condition on flight path too. Individual care must be give to potential danger atmospherics condition.
5. When is knows or expects icing creation, must be aircraft furnished or adapting , to can fly safely in this conditions.
6. Quantity of fuel and oil aboard must be full to provide, that planned flight can be safely realize, in consideration of meteorological conditions, any element, which influence power aircraft and any delay, which myself look forward to in time flight. Also they must carry about reserve fuel on emergency events too.
KEY ELEMENTS OF PREFLIGHT PLANNING
A basic element of preflight preparation requires the use of current navigational charts on which pilots can mentally review their intended route of flight. They may or may not wish to draw a line on the chart representing the true course. They should, however, review the projected path across the face of the chart for the location of good checkpoints, restricted areas, obstructions, other flight hazards, and suitable airports.
Since the shortest distance between two points is a straight line, a majority of pilots disire direct routes for most flights. Quite often there are factors that should be considered that may make a direct flight undesirable. Restricted and prohibited areas present obstacles to direct flights. In single-engine aircraft, pilots should give consideration to circumnavigating large, desolate areas. Pilots should also consider the single-engine service ceiling of multiengine aircraft when operating over high altitude terrain since the terrain elevation may be higher than the single-engine service ceiling of the multiengine aircraft being flown.
A weather briefing is an important part of preflight planning. An overview of the synoptic situation and general weather conditions an be obtained from public media (radio, TV, etc.) or by telephone from recorded sources. This will help the pilot to better understand the overall weather picture. The weather information should be weighed very carefully in considering the go/no-go decision. This decision is the sole responsibility of the pilot and compulsion should never take the place of good judgment.
Making a proper preflight preparation is an important part of flight safety. Before each flight must by an aircraft checks by preflight preparation, to find out, if it is able for planned flying. Cockpit helps pilots make their preflight preparation by offering a convenient preflight preparation software. This consists of a navigation log, a mass & balance and a conversions calculation programme.