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Pondelok, 17. júna 2024
Dátum pridania: 12.07.2007 Oznámkuj: 12345
Autor referátu: Nanet
Jazyk: Angličtina Počet slov: 961
Referát vhodný pre: Gymnázium Počet A4: 3.4
Priemerná známka: 2.97 Rýchle čítanie: 5m 40s
Pomalé čítanie: 8m 30s

The capital city of England and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland it lies on the river Thames, covers an area of 1,580 sq. km population: 7 million people (12 mil. in its conurbation) includes the City of London and 32 boroughs it's the seat of the Monarch, the Parliament, the Government, the Supreme Court contains many museums, galleries, theatres, many historical buildings, parks


The Celts settled the place as early as 800 B. C. 43 A. D. - Romans established Londonium when Romans left the island, it remained the capital of Britons during the reign of Norman kings (12th century) the royal court moved from Winchester (the formal capital) to London for ever 16th century - establishment of trading companies, the Royal Exchange (1565) 1665 - more than 75,000 people died from a plague epidemic

1666 - the Great Fire of London destroyed 4/5 of the city; during the following decades hectic building activity rebuilt the town; Sir Christopher Wren was appointed the main architect (constructed about 50 churches, many public buildings)

17th century - Lloyd's Insurance Company was established, Bank of England (1694), Stock Exchange (1773) the reign of Queen Victoria (1837 - 1901) - London grew and flourished

Industry, commerce, transport

industry: woodworking, furniture-making, chemical (oil), food (breweries, sugar refineries), clothing, printing, diamond cutting, electrical engineering, paper-making, production of cement, car industries financial and commercial centre - London Stock Exchange, gold, silver, platinum  trade, postal services, art trade

the river Thames - used as a highway since prehistoric times; the Port - one of the best in the world, now it's rebuilding into "The Metropolitan Water City"; the port has moved to Tilbury; riverbuses airports: Heathrow, Gatwick, London City Airport rails, underground (the oldest in the world - since 1863), buses (Victoria Coach Station)

Sights and important places

the City is the oldest part of London in the East (now is the home to the financial district) the East End (to the east of the City) - immigrants and working people the West End - chic chops, theatres, residential areas, parks the most stylish parts of London: Kensington, Belgravia, Knightsbridge, Chelsea the City of London - self-governing enclave since the 12th century, is headed by the Lord Mayor (he enters his office in November - "Lord Mayor's Show")

Tower of London

- William the Conqueror began to build the White Tower, than successive kings extended it; it was used as royal home, prison (Walter Raleigh, Guy Fawkes, Rudolf Hess), an executive site (Ann Boleyn, Catherine Howard, Thomas More), a royal mint, an observatory; now it's museum - arsenal of weapons, the Crown Jewels; the Yeomen Warders (Beefeaters) - uniform from Tudor times; six ravens - protect the kingdom;
Ceremony of the Keys (every night when the gate is locked)

Tower Bridge (1894)

- can raise in the middle to allow ships to pass up the river Docks, incl. St. Katherine Dock (1828)

St. Paul's Cathedral

- Sir Christopher Wren masterpiece was completed in 1711 after 35 years; Baroque style, the main nave is 170 metres long and is crowned by a central dome which raises 111 metres; the 2nd largest church in the world after St. Peter's in Rome; inside the dome along the cupola runs the Whispering Gallery (remarkable acoustic); took place there: W. Churchill's funeral service, wedding of Prince Charles and Princess Diana (1981); heroes are buried there: Admiral Nelson, the Duke of Wellington, Ch. Wren the Monument - commemorates the place in Pudding Lane where the Great Fire of London started; it's about 60 metres

Bank of England (Threadneedle St.), the Stock Exchange, the Lloyds of

the City of Westminster

- it was separate from London; contains: Royal Palaces, Abbey, Government offices

the Houses of Parliament

- seat of British Parliament; after fire in 1834, rebuilt in 1840 in neo-gothic style; the only remaining building is Westminster Hall, dating from 1097; the seat of Parliament since 1547; the House of Lord is a gothic hall lavishly decorated in red with the throne of Sovereign, in front of this is Woolsack the seat of Lord Chancellor who presides over the House; the House of Commons green leather benches facing to the table where the mace is placed, is presided over by the Speaker

Big Ben (the bell named after his author) - 97.5 metres high


Square - there used to stand the West Monastery; statues: Winston Churchill, Abraham Lincoln, Benjamin Disraeli

Westminster Abbey (11th century) - Coronation Chair (13th cent., cont. the Stone of Scone - symbol of Scottish Royalty); buried there: Elizabeth I., Mary Stuart, Henry VII., Charles II., Edward the Confessor - the founder of the cathedral, Geoffrey Chaucer, Robert Browning; Poet's Corner - monuments of John Milton, Walter Scott, Lord Byron, William Shakespeare


- Government; Royal Horse Guard - changing guards; Downing St. (no. 10 is a seat of Prime Minister since 1735); Banqueting House (paintings by Peter Paul Rubens on the ceiling) - the only remaining part of the Whitehall Palace (originally seat of Archbishop, from 16th cent. Royal Palace) - in 17th cent. Palace burned down twice; window from which Charles I. stepped out onto the scaffold (1649)

Buckingham Palace

- the seat of kings and queens; built in 1703 by the Duke of Buckingham; Queen Victoria was the 1st monarch to live there since 1837; outside: changing of the Guards, Queen Victoria Monument

the Mall

- exclusive street with best-known gentlemen's clubs and expensive shops

Trafalgar Square

- largest in London; commemorates Admiral Nelson's victory over Spanish fleet at Spanish Cape Trafalgar in 1805; in the middle - Nelson's Column (50 m)

National Gallery

- on the Trafalgar Square; greatest collection of Western paintings from 13th century till now; next to it is National Portrait Gallery

Piccadilly Circus

- busiest place in London; notable centre of entertainment in the West End; in the centre is at the top of the Fountain stands Eros, the Greek God of Love (built by Lord Shaftsbury - the famous philanthropist)

Shopping, parks, theatres, museums, galleries

Oxford St., Regent St., Bond St., Piccadilly, Covent Garden, Soho

St. James's Park (the oldest), Hyde Park (+ Speaker's corner), Kensington Gardens, Regent's Park

National Theatre, The Olivier Theatre, Barbican centre, Littleton Theatre

British Museum, British Library, London Dungeon, Madame Tussaud's, The Tate Gallery

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