– Všetko čo študent potrebuje
Piatok, 1. júla 2022
Slovakia - Infrastructure
Dátum pridania: 24.02.2002 Oznámkuj: 12345
Autor referátu: music
Jazyk: Angličtina Počet slov: 1 079
Referát vhodný pre: Stredná odborná škola Počet A4: 3.8
Priemerná známka: 2.93 Rýchle čítanie: 6m 20s
Pomalé čítanie: 9m 30s

The only reform from the Prague Spring that survived was the creation of a federal system with autonomous Czech and Slovak republics.

Resistance to Communist rule developed during the 1970s, and declared itself in 1977 in the Charter 77 movement (of which Václav Havel was one of the founders). The Charter 77 movement charged the Husák government with violations of human rights. The movement was stifled, however, by Husák's regime, and its leaders were imprisoned. In November 1989, after increasing demonstrations and political dissent, Civic Forum (a Czech coalition led by Václav Havel) and the Slovak group, Public Against Violence, forced the end of Communist rule. Not long after the 1990 elections, nationalism re-emerged as a major issue, with Slovaks pressing for even greater autonomy. Nationalists triumphed in the 1992 elections in Slovakia and, when the newly elected Czech and Slovak governments could not agree on the division of federal powers, Slovak Prime Minister, Vladimir Meąiar, and Czech Prime Minister, Václav Klaus, decided that a peaceful split of the Czechoslovak state was the only solution.

After Slovakia became independent on 1 January 1993, Meąiar continued market reforms, but slowed the pace of privatization of large enterprises to avoid exacerbating rising unemployment. However, economic stagnation and Meąiar's confrontational leadership style led parliament to remove him from office on a vote of no confidence in March 1994. Jozef Moravąík became the new prime minister, but, in elections held in September 1994, Meąiar was returned to power when his party won 35 per cent of the vote, against 10 per cent for his nearest rival.

The transition following the collapse of communism and the attainment of independence is proving difficult for the people of Slovakia, not least because the economy is much weaker than the Czech Republic. Independence is a sensitive subject among some Slovaks, while most are anxious to foster a positive image abroad.

After World War II, the Communist government initiated a programme of rapid industrialization in Slovakia. The emphasis was on heavy industries such as steel, chemicals, cement, and machinery, but these operations became increasingly inefficient and environmentally unsound. The collapse of Communism was followed by a decrease in output and sharp rises in inflation and unemployment. Slovakia's economy is weaker than that of the Czech Republic, and progress towards market reforms and privatization has accordingly been much slower. This, combined with political instability, in turn has inhibited the foreign investment that the country desperately needs. Potential development sectors include tourism, but the overall economic outlook is bleak.
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