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Pondelok, 27. marca 2023
Art - Building styles
Dátum pridania: 29.09.2008 Oznámkuj: 12345
Autor referátu: Bambi1990
Jazyk: Angličtina Počet slov: 1 036
Referát vhodný pre: Gymnázium Počet A4: 3.6
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Art - Building Styles

The Romanesque style

The Romanesque style originated in the 11st century and lasted until the 13th century. Typical basilicas, monasteries and rotundas were built. The buildings have massive pillars and painted walls with small round Windows and doors. The main distinguishing features are round arches. Well known buildings are the St. George´s Basilica in Prague, the rotundas on the hill Říp, in Prague, and in the cities of Worms, Speyer and Mainz.

The Gothic style

The Gothic style developed from the 12th to the 15th century. Gothic is the noblest and highest of all building styles. Contemporary man is astonished when he considers how people in earlier times were able to built such beautiful buildings. Typical attributes are rib vaulting, stone arches and luminous stained glass Windows. Churches, cathedrals, castles were constructed, as well as stone bridges, burgher´s houses and town halls. Around the towns people built fortifications to protect themselves against enemies. 

Among the most notable buildings are Saint Vitus´ Cathedral in Prague,Stephansdom in Vienna, Notre Dame in Paris, cathedralsat Cologne and Ulms, the Monastery in Vyšší Brod and Zlatá koruna. Famous castles include Křivoklát and Karlštejn. Among Prague´s Gothic monuments are Charles Bridge and the Old Town Hall. The building masters were, for example, Peter Parler and Mthias of Arras.

The Renaissance style

The name is based on the French word renaissance- restoring to life. This was a new epoch associated with the increasing role of the townspeople in Europe. It originated in Italy in the 13th and 14th centuries. To Central Eeurope it came as late as the 15th century. Renaissance artists tried to make a new secular culture to take the place of feudal culture. Roman antiquity was revived. Terrestrial man was recognised, life on Earth was celebrated, reason won over the backwardness of the church. Artists longed for independence and freedom.

Solutions to social and political problems in the various countries were sought on the basic of a reform of the Church. The reformationtook place. Martin Luther and John Calvin were the most important reformers. 

From 1519 to 1522 the earth was circumnavigated for the first time. Discoveries in the natural sciencesand astronomy threatened the Church´s authority. The heliocentric opinion that considered the Sun to be the centre of our solar system was considered especially dangerous. Such views were held by Nicholas Copernicus and Galileo Galilei.
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