Turks on Slovak territory
Our country was a place for refugees, who were running before Turks. Croatians, who left their houses because of Turkish attacks, started to settle in villages of south-western Slovakia. Many of patricians from southern parts of monarchy and religious institutions came to Slovakia too. All important organs moved to Bratislava. Bratislava became main crown city for three centuries, and also legislative organ of the country – assembly – used to meet there.
1526 – Famous fight called “battle of Mohacs” (bitka pri Moháči) Turks vs. Austria-Hungary (Ľudovít II. Jagelovský). Austria-Hungary was defeated; Turks had free entrance to country. Ľudovít II. died, and throne was free - Ferdinand I. Hapsburg became a king.
1530 - Slovakia met with Turkish attacks for the first time. After retreat of Ferdinand’s army, Turkish hordes invaded for the first time into Slovakia. They plundered cities from Považie, through Nitra, Bojnice, to Beňadik. Except of rich plunder, they drug away about 40 000 of Slovakian peasants and citizens.
Turkish plundering became for long years threat for citizens.
1541 - Turks conquered Budín, two years later Ostrihom and religious centre of Austria-Hungary. Ostrihom was entrance to the Slovakian territory, so Turks conquered valleys of Váh, Hron and Nitra. Austria-Hungary became divided into three parts: Budínsky pašalík, Sedmohradsko and Austria-Hungarian kingdom.
1547 – This division was confirmed by agreement between sultan and Ferdinand I.
1543-1574 – Turks occupied Ostrihom, Šahy, Fiľakovo, Modrý kameň
Cities started to defend themselves. After conquering of Ostrihom, new citadel arises – Nové Zámky. Cannonry moved to Trnava and Archbishop moved to Bratislava.
1547 - King Ferdinand had to sign peace with Turks. He was ready for another war because he wanted to get Sedmohradsko back. War broke out again, but it ended in 1551 with terrible defeat. Turks conquered other regions on Slovak territory.
1554 - Turks gained very important citadel – Fiľakovský hrad (Castle of Fiľakovo)
1593-1608 - army tried to attack on Turks. With this began 15 years long war. Imperial army was successful at first; they conquered back Fiľakovo, Sečany, Novohrad and Ostrihom. During war, Tatars (ally of Turks) invaded into territory of middle Slovakia and totally plundered it there.
1604 – In 1604 started anti-Hapsburg wave (risers united with Turks)
1684 – Free Ostrihom
1685 - Nové Zámky, Budín, Jéger conquered
1687 - Conquest of Belgrade
1699 – In Kralovica was signed peace, the end of Turks in Slovakia