People and horses have been living together already since long past. The using of horse´s power fascilated people´s work, transport and raised the sphere of their activity. The horse also granted the stuff important for life: milk, meat, leather or dung for heating.
Today the horses are raised and trained for work, breeding, exhibition or various sports like races, jumping, military, polo or hunting. In present olympic games three riding sports are substituted: showjumping, dressure and military.
The first aim of the races were the effecient trials of speed and endurance of horses designed for breeding. They are known already 3000 years (the first record of the horse races in European continent was in 624 BC), they were also part of ancient olympic games. They aquired current sport charakter in England in the 18. century, when they became to be the means for improvement of the bleeding of English fullblooders.
There are three kinds of races: flat races, steeplechase and harness races.
Flat races also called "the royal sport" are the quickest. The horses compete on flat track with no obstacles. They are led by jockeys who wear "silks"- caps and jackets designed in distinctive colours and patterns which help to identify the horses. The horses wear light saddle with very short stirrups.
Most important races are in Great Britain: St. Leger in Doncaster, 2000 and 1000 Guineas in Newmarket, Derby and Oakes in Epsom. St. Leger. Derby and 2000 Guineas means the "Triple Crown", the highest distinction of the turf and since 1853 it was won by only 12 horses.
Steeplechase are long race with big rodded or other obstacles. The first competition was recorded in Ireland, it was run from Buttevante steeple to St. Leger steeple. The most famous competition is Grand National, Big Liverpool steeplechase, which has 30 obstacles and it´s the hardest one. The centre of steeplechase is althought Cheltenham and the "Golden cup" steeplechase, which is 5,7 m long. Great race on European continent is the Great pardubická steeplechase with it´s famous water trench 'Taxis'.
Harness races are similar to the ancient carriage races. The trotting horse is driven from a light, two-wheeled carriage called sulky. Especially for this sport have been developed special breeds like the Standbred and the French Trotter. This sport is most popular in USA, the centre is Meadlowlands in state New Jersey. The best competition is the Woodrow Wilson prize.
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|Jazyk:||Počet slov:||1 017|
|Referát vhodný pre:||Stredná odborná škola||Počet A4:||3.3|
|Priemerná známka:||2.95||Rýchle čítanie:||5m 30s|
|Pomalé čítanie:||8m 15s|