Ďaľšie referáty z kategórie
Education systems - Slovakia, U.S.A. and Great Britain
|Referát vhodný pre:||Stredná odborná škola||Počet A4:||2.8|
|Priemerná známka:||2.96||Rýchle čítanie:||4m 40s|
|Pomalé čítanie:||7m 0s|
between the ages of 15 and 18),
3) Higher education through college or university, which can be followed by graduate and professional schools.
Education in Great Britain
Full-time education is compulsory for all children between the ages of 5 and 16. Over 90% of all schoolchildren attend schools maintained from public funds.
There are some nursery schools for children between 2 and 5 years old, but their number is insufficient.
Primary education is given to children between the ages of 5 and 11. Primary schools are usually divided into infant schools for children between the ages of 5 and 7, and junior schools for children aged 7 to 11.
Secondary education is provided through grammar schools, comprehensive schools and secondary modern schools. Pupils at grammar schools remain there until 18 or 19 years old, especially if they want to go on to university. Secondary modern schools give a general education with a practical bias. It is common for more time to be given to handicrafts, domestic sciences and other practical activities than in grammar schools.
Secondary school pupils may take examinations leading to the Certificate of Secondary Education (CSE) or the General Certificate of Education (GCE).
Higher education (education beyond the secondary stage) comprises : (1) universities; (2) teacher training; (3) advanced courses in further education.
The universities are self-governing institutions, academically independent of the Department of Education and Science.
The English universities can be divided into three groups :
1) Oxford and Cambridge (or “Oxbridge“);
2) Provincial (or Civic ) Universities (or “Redbrick“): Birmingham, Bristol, Durham, Exeter, Hull, Keele, Leeds, Leicester, Liverpool, London, Manchester, Newcastle, Nottingham, Reading, Sheffield and Southampton.
3) The new universities (opened after 1960): Sussex, York, East Anglia, Essex, Lancaster, Warwick, Kent and some others. Like Oxbridge, the new universities are national, not provincial.
The basic qualification for university admission is the GCE at “A“ level, but applications for places at universities exceed the number available. Therefore entry to the universities is competitive: the candidates who have been most successful in their “A“ levels, or who make a good personal impression are usually accepted by the universities.
Over 90% of students in higher education are aided from public funds. The amount of the awards depends on the income of the student and his parents.
Students who are studying for a degree are called undergraduates. Those who have passed their examinations and have been awarded a degree are graduates.