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Ernesto Guevara Lynch de la Serna - Che Guevara
|Jazyk:||Počet slov:||1 423|
|Referát vhodný pre:||Stredná odborná škola||Počet A4:||4.7|
|Priemerná známka:||3.00||Rýchle čítanie:||7m 50s|
|Pomalé čítanie:||11m 45s|
Che organized and directed the Instituto Nacional de la Reforma Agraria to administer the new agrarian laws expropriating the large land holders; ran its Department of Industries; was appointed President of the National Bank of Cuba; forced non-communist out of the government and key posts and acting obstinately against the advise of two eminent French Marxist economists who were called in by Fidel Castro and who wanted Che to advance much more slowly and of the Soviet advisers, he pushed the Cuban economy so fast into total Communism, and into crop and production diversification, that he temporarily ruined it.
In 1959 he married Aledia March and together they visited Egypt, India, Japan, Indonesia, Pakistan and Yugoslavia. Back in Cuba, as Minister for Industry he signed (February 1960) a trade pact with the USSR which freed the Cuban sugar industry from dependence on the teeth of the US market; in it is foreshadowing his failure in the Congo and Bolivia, in an axiom which proved to be hopelessly misleading; ' It is not always necessary to wait until the conditions for revolution exist: the instructional focus can create them.' And, with Mao Tse-tung, he believed that the countryside must bring the revolution to the town in predominately peasant countries. Also at this time, he glorified his own kind of communist philosophy. ( published later in the Socialism and Man in Cuba, March 12 March 1965). It can be summed up in him ' Man really attains the state of complete humanity when he produces, without being forced by physical need to sell himself as a commodity.' He was moving away from "Moscow", towards Mao, and beyond into what is essentially the old idealistic, Anarchism. His formal breach with the Soviet Communist came when, addressing the Organization for Afro-Asian Solidarity at Algiers (February 1965) he charged the USSR with being a 'tacit accomplice of imperialism' by not trading exclusively with the Communist bloc and by not giving underdeveloped socialist countries aid without any thought of return. He also attacked the Soviet government for its policy of coexistence; and for Revisionism. He initiated the Tricontiental Conference to realize a program of revolutionary, insurrectionary, guerrilla cooperation in Africa, Asia and South America. On the other hand, after a halfhearted attempt to come to some kind of terms with the USA, he was also attacking the North Americas, at the UN as Cuba's representative there, for their greedy and merciless imperialist activity in Latin America.
Che's intransigence towards both capitalist abd communist estabklishment forced Castro to drop him (1965), not offically, but in practice. For some months even his whereabouts were a secret and his death was widely rumoured: he was in various African countries, notably the Congo surveying the possiblities of turning the Kinshasa rebellion into a Communist revolution, by Cuban-style guerrilla tactics. He returned to Cuba to train volunteers for that project, andf took a force of 120 Cubans to the Congo.