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Nedeľa, 11. apríla 2021
Types of speech
Dátum pridania: 13.04.2003 Oznámkuj: 12345
Autor referátu: emmie
Jazyk: Angličtina Počet slov: 888
Referát vhodný pre: Stredná odborná škola Počet A4: 2.9
Priemerná známka: 2.93 Rýchle čítanie: 4m 50s
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We know four main types of speech : standard, literary, provincial and coloquial.
Standard English:
Since the 1980s. The notion of „ standard“ has come to the fore in public debate about the English language./ At national level, in several countries,but especially in the UK/.
From the dozens of definitions available in the literature of English, we may extract five essential charakteristics. Standard speech is a variety of English- a distinctive combination of linguistics features with a particular role to play. Some people call it a „ dialect“ of English and so it is, but of a rathere special kind, for it had no local base. The linguistics features of Standard English are chiefly matters of grammar.vocabulary and ortography / spelling and punctuation/ It is important to note that SE is not a matter of pronounciation: SE is spoken in a wide variety of accents.
Standard speech is a variety of English which carries most prestige within a country: „ Prestige“ is a social concept, whereby some poeple have high standing in the eves of others, whether this derives from social class,material succes, political strength, popular acclaim or educational background.The Engish that these people choose to use will by this very fact become the standard within their community. In the word of one US Linguist SE is „ the English used by the powerfull“ / James Sledd/
Standard English is the variety shich is used as the norm of communication by the community´s leading institutions, such as its goverment law courts and media. Although SE is widely understood, it is not widely produced. Only a minority of people within a country/ e.g. radio newcasters/ actually use it when they talk.
Most people speak a variety of regional English, or an admixture of standard and regional Englishes and reserve such labels as „BBC English“ or „ the Queen´s English“ for what they perceive to be a „ pure“ SE.
On this basis we may define the SE of an English- speaking country as a minority variety which carries most prestige and is most widely understood.
A variety of Standard English/ British or American/ exists as an official means of formal international communication in the area, spoken by an educated minority with any one of a wide range of regional accents. Soe have learned this variety as a mother tongue: most have acquired it in school as a second language.
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Zdroje: David Crystal : Encyclopedy of English
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