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Piatok, 20. septembra 2019
The American Indians
Dátum pridania: 26.05.2003 Oznámkuj: 12345
Autor referátu: Tienka
 
Jazyk: Angličtina Počet slov: 5 799
Referát vhodný pre: Stredná odborná škola Počet A4: 19.1
Priemerná známka: 2.96 Rýchle čítanie: 31m 50s
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The history and culture of the American Indians werenever the same..."




INTRODUCTION:



First people who came to the New World were Indians,and they came there about
20 000 years ago.It was the time of low watter level when the Berings canal was drained and it were created a natural passage.The Indians came from Siberia to Alaska trough that canal and spreaded all over American land.










Because Indians were nomadic they moved from place to place for many years , looking for better life conditions,they succeeded to populate the whole American continent,and because of that kind of life (nomadic) they were usually hunters and collectors, but later they also started growing plants and domesticate wild animals ,for example dogs.
When Indians finally settled they were divided into Northern American Indians, Mesoamerican Indians and Southern American Indians.Northern indians and Mesoamerican Indians were very different which was obvious because the Indians in the north made their first steps to civilization about 700 years BC,and it was the tribe of Aden who settled the forest in today State Ohio.They lived in big hamlets, where they have built cult barrows and all thing were made usually from copper. Mesoamerican Indians took their first steps to civilization much sooner,somewhere in 4000 BC.Thir situation was the same like the Northern Indiansin 700 BC.In the year 2600BC, were made grand big towns with beautiful houses and amaying temples where they took their sacrifices. Later there were cultures line Olomec civilization in Mexico ,and in 300BC also in Mexico were made first pyramids of civilization Maya.So , about American Indians we can say that they were unique and independent nation who created their own culture and history by themselves , with help of beautiful nature and good life conditions.There are some assumptions that at the time of first European contact , North and South America was inhabited by more than 90 milion people. About 10 milion in the Southwest , 30 milion in Mexico , 11 milion in Central America , 30 milionin the South American Andean region , 9 milion in the rest part of South America , 445.00 in the Carribbean islands , but those are just assumptions. Precise numbers are impossible to ascertain , because when colonists started coming and settling down , the Native American populations had been drastically reduced by war , starvation , forced labour and epidemic of diseases introduced through contact with Europeans.
Physical characteristics of the Native American are most similar to Asian population. Native Americans tend to have light brown or red skin , brown eyes , and dark straight hair. For example : Populations of the Great Plains of North America tend to be tall and heavy in build , while on the other hand many in the South American Andes tend to be short and broad chested.





NORTH AMERICAN INDIANS



History of population of the North America:
Human ocupation of North America began during the Pleistocene Epoch People of Mongolian race are thought to have migrated to the continent from Asia over land bridge across what is now a Bering Strait. These earliest inhabitants were stone Age people , who lived by hunting and gathering , later they were supplanted by other migrants with more advanced tools. These people was believed to be the earliest ancestors of the Native North Americans who developed complex cultures and inhabited the continent.
Major culture areas of North America because of the differences between the tribes it is easier to group all those societies in to culture areas.
 
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Zdroje: Encyklopédia historie sveta – Kingfisher Publication , Londýn 1999, Mexička I srednjoamerička mitologija – Irene Nicholson , 1967, Aztékovia, ríša krvi a lesku – Time Life Books , 1992, Mythology (an illustrated Encyclopedia) – Richard Cavenidsch , 1980, Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia – 2002, National Geographic (1491 America before Columbus) – October , 1991
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