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The American Indians
|Jazyk:||Počet slov:||5 799|
|Referát vhodný pre:||Stredná odborná škola||Počet A4:||19.1|
|Priemerná známka:||2.96||Rýchle čítanie:||31m 50s|
|Pomalé čítanie:||47m 45s|
These villages along with Zuñi and hopi are western.
Zuñi : because the Zuñi pueblos were living in big societies they had a language of their own. They were similar to Hopi pueblos by their weaving, basketry , pottery and for tirquoise jewelery.
Hopi : also called Maqui. Hopi pueblos were farmers , basketers also they weaved blankets , and were potters and carvers. Their houses were made by women. Hoses were built of roughly cut stone and finished in plaster. The interior walls were often ornamented with simple geometric bands or were whitewashed with gyspum. Floors were sometimes flaged (covered with bricks).Doorways were usually built in T-shapes because thei were the only sources of light. Tradition of the Hopi people was that they could't marry anyone from their own tribe. The Hopi religion is similar to other Pueblo people , but it includes also the worship of the forces of nature and it has many ceremonies which are intended to influence supernatural powers. Private rites are held in underground ceremonial chambers – Kivas ( this chambers were usually with a hole formal meetings or ceremonies ). Dances and public services were performed in public places (streets , plazas). For Hopi people , the most important religious ceremonie includes the Kachina fertility (the spirit believed by Hopi people to be the ancestor of human beings)Kachina was represented , either a carved wooden doll or a costumed performer in a ceremonial dance. They had ceremonies for everything and there was also one ceremonie which were performed every two years near August 20th , and it was Snake dance actually a rain dance. This dance includes the skilled handling of live snakes and it is performed in public after eight days of secret ceremonies. It is a petition to the nature gods to bring rain. The Hopi believed that snakes are their brothers , the children of their ancestors the Snake Maid and the Snake Hero , who were changed into snake and that they therefore have special powers of intercession.
There were also other tribes like Apache and Navajo (Navaho) , who were mostly hunters.
Navajo : are closely related to the Apache , and originally emigrated from some areas to the north and settled in the Southwest somewhere in 16th century. By the 17th century the Navajo had domesticated with economy based mostly on hunting and herding. The Navajo people were divided into more than 50 clans.These people also like Hopi , had to marry someone outside their clan.They lived in traditional hogans. Conical houses of logs covered with earth , with smoke hole at the top , and with short , covered passage.
Zdroje: Encyklopédia historie sveta – Kingfisher Publication , Londýn 1999, Mexička I srednjoamerička mitologija – Irene Nicholson , 1967, Aztékovia, ríša krvi a lesku – Time Life Books , 1992, Mythology (an illustrated Encyclopedia) – Richard Cavenidsch , 1980, Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia – 2002, National Geographic (1491 America before Columbus) – October , 1991