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Pondelok, 17. mája 2021
Japan
Dátum pridania: 01.10.2007 Oznámkuj: 12345
Autor referátu: bran000
 
Jazyk: Angličtina Počet slov: 2 546
Referát vhodný pre: Gymnázium Počet A4: 8.4
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Literature

Japanese literature ranks as one of the world’s great literatures. It reflects many characteristic of the Japanese people, such as their appreciation of tradition and their sensitivity to nature. The Japanese probably produces their first written literature during A.D. 500´s. But Japan has been for many years isolated from the rest of the world, and its written language was difficult to master. Therefore, Japanese literature remained almost unknown outside Japan until the 1900´s.
The oldest works of Japanese literature are two histories, The Record of Ancient Maters, and The Chronicles of Japan. These works contents the courageous deeds of the imperial family, but they also include folk tales, legends, myths, and songs.
The earliest collection of Japanese poetry, the Man´yoshu, also appeared during the 700´s. It contains more than 4,500 poems by hundreds of poets. These poets consist of 31 – syllable poems called tanka, which deal with friendship, love, and nature.
Much of Japan's early literature was written by women, partly because men wrote in imported Chinese characters while women wrote in Japanese script. Among these early female authors is Murasaki Shikibu, who wrote perhaps Japan's most important work of literature, The Tale of Genji, about the intrigues of early Japanese court life.
The revered poet, Matsuo Basho, invented just-so haiku poetry in the 17th century. More modern literati include controversial Yukio Mishima, provocative Murakami Ryu and cool cat Banana Yoshimoto. Many people consider Natsume Soseki the greatest Japanese novelist. As a novelist and literary critic of the early 1900´s, he established the modern novel as a respected form of literature.
Although the western literature influenced Japanese, the Japanese literature will be still a treasure in the world’s literature, because no literature in the world can write about the nature and human beings in so beautiful and respectful way.

Tourism

Japan is one of the most attractive touristy countries. It’s favorite because of beautiful virgin nature, old and mysterious history, oriental and colorful festivals that entice many tourists from Europe and other countries.
Most of the tourist are used to going to Tokyo, the capital city that is situated on the biggest island – Honshu. Magical memories of Tokyo don't consist of regular sightseeing, as this isn't a city of architectural brilliance flooded with monuments. Ginza is the most famous shopping area in Tokyo: it's opulent, vital and popular, and is the place to be seen emptying your wallet. . The Tokyo National Museum holds the world's largest selection of Japanese art; the National Science Museum is a massive free-for-all packed with scientific goodies.

Mt Fuji

Japan's highest mountain (3776m/12,385ft) is the only natural feature most visitors to Japan are sure they want to check out. Fuji-san is a perfectly symmetrical volcanic cone, which last blew its top in 1707, covering the streets of Tokyo 100km (62mi) away with volcanic ash.9 The Fuji Five Lakes arched around the northern side of the mountain are popular with Japanese day-trippers from Tokyo. They offer water sports, amusement parks, and ice caves and good views of Mt Fuji. The quickest way to get to the Fuji area is by bus from Tokyo's Shinjuku terminal. There's a comprehensive bus network in the area servicing the lower hill region and the lakes area.

Kyoto

Kyoto, with its hundreds of temples and gardens, was the imperial capital between 794 and 1868, and it continues to function as the major cultural center of Japan. The Imperial Palace is one of the few sights in central Kyoto.
Daisetsuzan National Park
Japan's largest national park (2309 sq km/1432 sq mi) is in central Hokkaido, the northernmost and second largest of Japan's islands. The park, which consists of several mountain groups, volcanoes, lakes and forests, is spectacular hiking and skiing territory. It's almost insanely popular in Nagasaki.

Nagasaki

Nagasaki is a busy and colorful city but its unfortunate fate as the second atomic bomb target obscures its fascinating early history of contact with the Portuguese and Dutch.10 Ukrami, the epicenter of the atomic explosion, is today a prosperous, peaceful suburb which encompasses the chilling A-Bomb Museum, an evocative reminder of the horror of nuclear destruction; and the Hypocenter Park, which has a black stone column marking the exact point above which the bomb exploded plus relics and ruins from the blast. A bell in the turtle-shaped Fukusai-ji Zen Temple tolls at 11.02 am daily, the time of the explosion. One of the world's biggest Foucault Pendulums (a device which demonstrates the rotation of the earth) hangs inside the temple, summer and early autumn when you really need a few days to get away from the crowds.

Festivals

Very popular are also the Japanese festivals. The Japanese celebrate many festivals during the year. One of the most popular celebrations is the New Year’s Day, which begins on January 1. On this day the Japanese dress in their most colorful kimonos. People visits their friends and relatives and exchange gifts. On 17 July is Giou Matsarai celebrated. Is the most renowned of all Japanese festivals – the climax is parade of massive man – dragged floats decked out in incredible finny. The bizarre that is following up to Valentines Day is the Knickers Giving Day. Man are supposed to give a gift of panties to their lady. Very interesting is an Yah Matsuri Festival that is an argument contest. The competitors yell “Yah, yah!” and try to look fearsome.
The national anthem is called kimigayo (the Reign of our Emperor), and the main holidays are: Emperors Birthday-April 29, New Years Day – January, Constitution Day – May 3.
Of course, it’s difficult to write down every single tourist attraction, because Japan is full of interesting things, which sometimes seemed to be for the tourist from other countries very strange and mysterious. But that’s the reason, what makes Japan to be the most beautiful countries in the world. Country full of contrasts. Wonderful nature and deep traditions, roots into the hectic and smoggy towns. Everything live together on the islands called Japan – the mysterious country where is western civilization mixed up with the oriental culture.
 
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