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Man and Nature

litter/drop litter/leave litter = odhadzovať odpadky
problems : eczema, rash, spots

animals are losing their national habitat, people kill them for some parts of their body( tigers, coalas, elephants – endangered species ), they are hunted for ivory, horns, skin, fat, meat.....lot of people think they are dangerous
they inhabit a small area on the slopes of volcanoes and protected areas

  1. problem of habitat destruction
  2. pollution
  3. illegal hunting

conservational = ochranca
view sb = považovať niekoho
fierce = divoký, divý
savage = primitívny
gentleness = jemnosť
clownish = šašovský
high spirit = dobrá nálada
thistles = bodliaky
bamboo shoots = bambusové výhonky
be captured = byť zajatý
break out = vypuknúť, začať
awareness = uvedomelosť
tribes = kmene
postpone = odložiť
fed on = živiť sa
urban sprawl = rozsiahle bludisko
spread out/expand/enlarge = rozširovať sa
rubbish tip = skládka odpadu
oil spill/slick = olejová škvrna
stroll/roam = túlať sa
demand for = dopyt po..
current = súčasný
crowd out = vytlačiť
be accomplished = byť vykonaný
carry out = vykonať
poacher = pytliak
ashtray = popolník
shortage/lack of = nedostatok
concrete = betónový
power station = elektráreň
release = vypúšťať

Pros and cons of a ZOO

Pros :

  • animals are kept in safety
  • fun for whole family, children can´t easily get bored
  • you can feed some species
  • sensitive to animals´ habitat
  • usually open at weekends
  • you can see wide variety of animals
  • animals have medical care
  • they are protected against hunters
  • they don´t dive of starvation

Cons :

  • bad conditions for living
  • they haven´t got so much space as in their natural habitat
  • high prices
  • some animals are kept alone in small cages
  • some can be aggressive and hurt people
  • rude treatment of visitors
  • poor living conditions

The world´s population is growing and people need and want more. There are about 6 billion people in the world. All life on our planet depends on 3 basic elements : air, water and soil. Now, at the beginning of the 21st century, we are facing really serious problems. The air we breathe, the water we drink and the soil which is used for our food are all polluted.
For the last 150 years, people have polluted the whole planet and ecologists warn that if we don´t stop damaging the environment, life on our planet will disappear.

The situation is critical and humankind must find solutions to the greenhouse effect, the holes in the ozone layer, acid rain, serious weather changes as soon as possible.

Describe the influence of the environment on the humans and its possible problems, include the following items:

  1. WATER
    Mainly water polluting is dangerous. Rivers and lakes are dirty, sometimes full of poisoned plants and fish.
    In Britain, too, many rivers and brooks are full of industrial and household waste. Great Britain is an island surrounded by the seas, which are filthy because of all the rubbish that is pumped into them. That´s why many British holiday resorts don´t meet the requirements of the European community standard of cleanliness. 25 years ago it was considered eccentric to drink bottled water in Britain, but today it´s common because Britain´s water supplies have become polluted. The reason is that agriculture is using chemical fertilisers which get into the underground water.
    Buildings are damaged by acid rains. Acid rains are harmful because they are mixed with smoke from factories and power plants. But the biggest polluter today is the car. In Britain for example there are about 25 million cars on the roads. The cars produce fumes which pollute the air.
    Animals are apart of the environment too. Millions of them are killed or treated cruelly by man every year. There are 5 main groups of animals:
    -animals used for scientific research ( a rabbit, rat, mouse,.. )
    -animals killed for sport ( a fox )
    -animals killed for their fur or skin ( a crocodile )
    -animals in danger because their environment is in danger ( gorillas )
    -animals kept in cruel conditions on farms ( cows, poultry )
    ZOO – In my opinion all zoos are not necessary. Animals should live in their natural habitat. It is very cruel when we see animals locked in zoos. They must be very sad, they lack nature, freedom, they are like prisoners in jails. The only case when I agree with their being in zoos is when some species are threatened( they are killed in big numbers ) and that´s why they´re rare in nature and must be protected against/from man in zoos.
    Waste paper should be reused and recycled. Recycling plays a very important role in reducing pollution and protecting natural resources. In Britain for example supermarkets give money back to customers who return cans or re-use plastic bags, but critics say it´s too little to help the environment.
    There is much to be done not only in Great Britain but as well as in many other countries all over the world. The task of protecting the environment is an international task and solving all these problems will take a lot of time and a lot of effort in many countries including Slovakia.

What does the environment mean to young people?
Many young people work in Green Peace – it is an international organisation whose aim is to protect the environment. Some activists work also in Slovakia. I´m also interested in the environment, for example I use reusable containers – that means I separate the waste. Another similar well-known environmental organisation is Children of the Earth.


Urban sprawl – animals are losing their habitats as growing cities cause the countryside to disappear
Acid rain – factories and cars release poisonous chemicals into the air. The chemicals mix with the water in the clouds, and the polluted rain which later falls damages trees, lakes and buildings.
Destruction of the ozone layer – our society is producing too much packaging and food waste which are dropped in the streets or end up on the rubbish tip, diseases spread more easily
Deforestation – forests are disappearing as trees are burnt or cut down. Less and less oxygen is being produced
Water contamination – dangerous chemicals from factories are poured into oceans, rivers and streams, killing fish


Destruction of habitat – give financial support to poorer countries, plant more trees, protect jingles and forests
Pollution – use bicycles instead of cars, encourage industries to use cleaner methods of production, educate the public about the importance of recycling
Illegal hunting – create more protected national parks, introduce harsher punishments for illegal hunters, raise public awareness about endangered species

Litter/rubishdirty streets, spread of diseasesencourage recycling, use litter bins
Air pollutionbreathing problems, cancer riskunleaded petrol, filters in factories, ban cars from city centres
Water pollutionfish die, stomach illnesseslimit use of chemicals in industry, fine factories which pollute seas/rivers

affected = ovplyvnený
cope with sth = čeliť niečomu
culprit = vinník
fertiliser = hnojivo
filthy = ufúľaný
humankind = ľudstvo
particle = častica
prevail = prevažovať
ban = zákaz
crops = úroda
detergent = čistiaci prostriedok
effort = úsilie, námaha
game reserve = prírodná rezervácia
leak = pretekať, presakovať
peak = vrchol
sewage = splašky
track sb down = vypátrať
tamper = ovplyvňovať, robiť
waste = odpad
life substaining needs = základné životné potreby
congestion = dopravná zápcha
groundwater = podzemná voda
one-time-use items = jednorázové výrobky
profound = hlboký, prenikavý, vážny
seep = vsakovať
discharge = vypustiť, vylievať
dispose = zbaviť sa, likvidovať
landfill area = verejné skládky odpadu
fossil fuel = pevné palivo
hints = pomôcky, náznaky
poisonous = jedovatý
wasteful = prebytočný
preservative = konzervačná látka
suspicious = podozrievavý
bleach = bieliace prostriedky
be tempted = byť pokúšaný, mať chuť
at the rate = rýchlosťou
foreseeable = predvídateľný
descent = zostup, pokles
survival = prežitie
be on the brink of = byť na pokraji
creep = plížiť sa
assessment = hodnotenie
livestock farming = chov dobytka
landmass = zemská hmota
incinerate = spopolniť
disposal = likvidácia, odstránenie
kerosene = petrolej
soot = sadze
crop-growing = pestovanie obilia
heap = kopa, hromada
combustion = spaľovanie
vapour = para

environment, ecology, pollution : air, water, land,
polluter, conservation, conservationist harm, damage, destroy, pollute environment, global warming, the greenhouse effect, holes in the ozone layer, acid rain, destruction of habitats, rain forest, endangered species, extinct
pollutant : aerosols, fumes, smog, toxic waste, pesticides, fertilizers, waste, sewage, trash greenhouse gases, energy, electricity, fossil fuel, coal, natural gas, oil, hydroelectric, dam, dump, dispose, discharge, contaminate,
ecosystem, balance, environmental group, environmentally friendly, environmentalist, conservation, conservationist, green( issues, product ), protest,
recycle, bottle bank, renewable energy sources : wind power, windmill, wave power, solar power, solar cells, unleaded petrol, recyclable

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