Ancient theories in management
Management as a practical activity exists a long time. Satisfactory evidences are buildings from which many of them we can admire nowadays for example: Egyptians pyramids, Chinese great wall, Colosseum, castles, cathedrals, and many others great buildings. This buildings must have been built by a thousands of workers or slaves and it is certain that they must have been leaded by someone. So in these activities should have been managerial activity. There should have been prepared project, planning and severing work, organizing work for ten thousands workers and control it, securing efforts, securing food for workers and many other things. Historians estimate that Egyptian pyramid has been building for 20 years by over 100 000 people so we can imagine that it was not only small decision making but one decision influenced thousands and thousands people.
Not only buildings are evidences of managers activities in ancient times. Historical documents are evidences that there were many other activities that needed managerial organizing and planning. It was leading religion activities, producing in organizing groups, military missions etc. In all of this and activities was used that what is today called management. Necessity of managerial activity is needed there where people works together.
In Summers empire ( 3000 B.C. ) they had written rules for leading empire and they knew written accounting. Something similar was in Babylonians empire ( 2700-500 B.C. )
Egyptians were using for building pyramids planning, controlling and organizing. The first pyramid was built in years 2630-2611 B.C..
When Judas were leaving Egypt they find out that it’s important to organize people in groups, make organizing hierarchy and delegate authority from one man to another’s men. In Bible is written that when Mosaic father-in-law Jetro saw how Moses is from morning to evening sitting and hearing witnesses and making verdicts also in small things, criticized him and told him, to dissociate Israeli into groups of 1000, 100, 50, 10 people and to each group affiliate chief, who would be judge and would make verdicts in small things and only in important things could man refer from higher institutes to Moses. For us is this maybe usual but it was great leap for mankind.
In ancient Greece Socrates as the 400 B.C.
talk about practices and conceptions of management and about universality of management.
5000 Sumerians Script, record keeping
4000 Egyptians Recognized need for planning, organizing and controlling
2700 Egyptians Recognized need for honesty or fair play in management. Therapy interview ‘get it off your chest’
2600 Egyptians Decentralization in organization.
2000 Egyptians Recognized need foe written word in request. Use of staff advice.
1800 Hammurabi Use of witnesses and writing for control; establishment of minimum wage; recognition that responsibility cannot be shifted.
1600 Egyptians Centralization in orfanization.
1491 Hebrews Concepts of organization, scalar principle, exception principle. 1100 Chinese Recognized need for organization, planning and controlling.
600 Nebuchadnezzar Production control and wage incentives.
500 Nencius Recognized need for systemsand standards.
Chinese Principle of specialization recognized.
Sun Tzu Recognized need for planning, directing and organizing.
400 Socrates Enunciation of universality of management.
In Roman Empire was good defined organization structure, which excellent helped communication and control. As the 2nd century B.C. was known job description and as the 50. B.C. qualification requirements for specific jobs.