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Artificial Intelligence - On Philosphy of
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Now, with computers such as Deep Blue, beating the world’s best chess players, we realize that the game strategy of chess can be described in relatively simple algorithms and that it is only the computing speed that beats Kasparov. Just like a car is faster than Michael Johnson...
If a cat does something, we call it instinct; if we do the same thing, for the same reason, we call it intelligence. -Will Cuppy
In a wider sense, under the term ‘intelligence’ we, actually, mean almost all but the simplest human behavior (quite contrary to the quote). I will follow with an example:
“What is it?”
“It is.. it is .. it is green.”
(Scott and Data trying to classify a beverage; Star Trek - The Next Generation)
From the Star Trek dialogue above, it seems that there has to be a certain role of socialization in the human intelligence. A lot of what we consider as intelligent behaviour is acquired during the process of socialization through which we develop an awareness of social norms and values, appropriate ways of behavior, cognitive categories and basic knowledge about the world around us.
It can be argued, on the other hand, that such a cultural orientation cannot be considered as a part of the ‘basic intelligence’ that defines a human being. People from different cultural backgrounds may not behave in a certain situations in a way proper for the (culturally familiar) observer, but they cannot be called unintelligent because of this lack. Stressing the ‘learning’ component of the EB’s definition can solve this quarrel. Even a thing that knows nothing but can learn is an intellect, such as a human baby. Strong AI – Weak AI: Minds or imitation of minds?
It is already common linguistic practice to describe computers as having memories, making inferences, understanding one language or another, and the like, but are such descriptions literally true or simply metaphorical?
In general, there is a basic distinction in the artificial intelligence approaches between weak and strong AI. The term strong AI was introduced by John Searle in 1980 and aims at building machines that can think. Its’ ultimate ambition is to “produce a machine whose overall intellectual ability is indistinguishable from that of a human being”. This group holds that human intelligence itself consists of the very computational processes that could be exemplified by advanced machines, so that it would be unreasonable to deny the attribution of intelligence to such machines.
Weak AI, on the other hand, argues that computers can only appear to think and are not actually conscious in the same way as human brains are.