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Common Agriculture Policy in European Union
|Jazyk:||Počet slov:||4 356|
|Referát vhodný pre:||Stredná odborná škola||Počet A4:||15|
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COMs with guaranteed prices and conditional intervention
These apply to wine, pigmeat and some fresh fruit and vegetables, affecting approximately one fifth of Community final production. They involve a guaranteed price scheme, although it is applicable only in the event of a serious market crisis. 3. Mixed COMs with guaranteed prices and direct aids to complement production
These apply to cereals, rice, sheep meat, bananas, milk (from 2005-6) and beef (although from 2002 a conditional intervention scheme with a 'safety net' will be set up). 4. COMs with direct production aids only
At a flat rate or proportional to the quantities produced or yields, these COMs apply to oilseeds, protein crops, feeding stuffs, tobacco, textiles, peas and beans, hops, processed fruit and vegetables, some fresh fruit and vegetables (asparagus and nuts), olive oil and olives, and cover approximately 10% of Community final production. 5. COMs without direct production support
This mechanism offers only customs protection. COM classification by supply control mechanism
Following the most recent CAP reforms, there are four coexisting mechanisms for controlling production quantities.
1. Production quotas as such
Quotas are fixed at national level for milk and sugar and allocated to farms or enterprises. Producers exceeding the quotas in each Member State face penalties. 2. National guaranteed production quotas
These quotas (Maximum Guaranteed Quantities - MGQ -, Maximum Guaranteed Areas - MGA - and premiums per head of cattle) cover a long list of products and are equivalent to direct aid to producers, reduced proportionally if predetermined thresholds are exceeded. 3. Guaranteed production quotas at Community level
These quotas, which are calculated on the basis of overall EU production, are being phased out and at present only apply to some processed fruit and vegetables, pulses and bananas. 4. National quotas for surpluses
These quotas are for some Mediterranean products (wine, using approved distillation volumes) and some fresh fruit and vegetables (using thresholds for withdrawal from the market). MAIN MECHANISMS
The CAP price support mechanism
The original CAP machinery did not apply to every product and, in the cases where it did; it varied from one product to another. Although major changes is par have since been introduced, the mechanism still applies to some products and shed light on some of the disastrous consequences of the policy earlier on.
Where the original system still applies, the farmers´ income support is guaranteed by regulating the market so as to reach a price high enough to achieve this objective.