Education in Great Britain, U.S.A. and Slovakia
Education in Great Britain
Full-time education is compulsory for all children between the ages of 5 and 16. Over 90% of all school children attend schools maintained from public funds (verejné postriedky) There are some nursery schools (kindergardens) for children between 2 and 5 years old, but their number isinsufficient.
Primary education is given to children between the ages of 5 and 11. Primary schools are usually divided into infant schools for children between the agesof 5 and 7 (grade 1), and junior schools for children aged 7 to 11 (grade 2).
Secondary education is provided through grammar schools, comprehensive schools(všeobecná stredná škola) and secondary modern schools. Pupils at grammar schools remain there until 18 or 19 years old, especially if they want to go on to university. Secondary school pupils may take examinations leading to the Certificate of Secondary Education (CSE) or the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). Advance level of GCSE is called A – level and it isstandard for entrance the universities. The candidates who have been most successful in their “A“ levels, or who make a good personal impression are usually accepted by the universities.
Higher education (post school education) comprises (zahrňuje):
2) teacher training;
3) advanced courses in further education.
The universities are self-governing institutions. The English universities can be divided into three groups:
1. Oxford and Cambridge – the oldest and the most famous.
2. Redbrick Universities – were founded in the 19th century
3. The new universities opened after 1960.
Over 90% of students in higher education are aided (vypomáhajú si) from public funds. The amount (hodnota) of the awards depends on the income of the student and his parents. Students who are studying for a degree are called undergraduates. Those who have passed their examinations and have been awarded a degree are graduates. Most universities differentiate between arts and science titles, and award the degrees of Bachelor of Arts (B.A.), Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.), Master of Arts(M.A.), and Master of Science (M.Sc.). These titles are put after a person’s name. Subjects taught at schools are: English, Math, Science, History, Technology, Music, Art, Physical education, languages etc.
Education in the U.S.A.
Compulsory education in all the states begins at the age of 6, in some states attendanceis required to the age of 16, 17, or 18. Each state has own system of education. All the elementary and secondary education in the U.S. is comprehensive; there is no selection of children forvarious types of school.
System of U.S. education can be divided into the following stages:
a) Elementary education through Elementary School: 1st to 6th grade (ages 6 to12)
b) Secondary education through High School divided into:
· Junior High School (7th to 9th grade, i.e. between the ages of 12 and 15)
· Senior High School (10th to 12th grade, i.e. between the ages of 15 and 18)
c) Higher education through college or university, which can be followed by graduate and professional schools.
Education in Slovakia
The educational system in Slovakia has been reformed several times. State andreligious schools are free, they are financed by the state. Our schools system consists of 4 main grades: the pre-school grade, basic school, general secondary school, university.
Pre-school education includes crèches, nursery schools and kindergartens. They are attended by the children at the age 2 to 6. This stage is not necessary.
Compulsory (povinná) education is for children between the ages 6 to 16. Basic education is compulsory for everybody after the age of 6. There is no selection of children entering primary schools. Primary education lasts 9 years and is comprehensive, providing basic knowledge for the pupils. It includes subjectslike: languages, maths, physics, history, geography, biology, music, physical education, arts and crafts.
Children over 14-15 are given secondary education at general secondary schools, or secondary grammar schools, apprentice training centers (učňovky), tradeschools (odborná), art schools. Those who want to attend secondary grammar must pass the entrance examination. The study at most schools finishes with the schools leaving exams.
After finishing a secondary school one can continue studying at any of technical, economic, medicine, natural science or other colleges. It is possible to choose Bachelor or Diploma study. The last one usually ends with the state examinations and the pleading of the thesis (dizertačná práca).
The last step in our educational system is the postgraduate study, where astudent is improving his ability for independent scientific work under the guide of the experienced specialist.